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The major human AP endonuclease APE1 (HAP1, APEX, Ref1) initiates the repair of abasic sites generated either spontaneously, from attack of bases by free radicals, or during the course of the repair of damaged bases. APE1 therefore plays a central role in the base excision repair (BER) pathway. We report here that XRCC1, another essential protein involved(More)
A particularly important stress for all cells is the one produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are formed as byproducts of cell metabolism. Among DNA damages induced by ROS, 8-hydroxyguanine (8-OH-G) is certainly the product that has retained most of the attention in the past few years. The biological relevance of 8-OH-G in DNA has been unveiled by(More)
XRCC1 participates in DNA single strand break and base excision repair (BER) to preserve genetic stability in mammalian cells. XRCC1 participation in these pathways is mediated by its interactions with several of the acting enzymes. Here, we report that XRCC1 interacts physically and functionally with hOGG1, the human DNA glycosylase that initiates the(More)
Apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites are one of the most frequent spontaneous lesions in DNA. They are potentially mutagenic and lethal lesions that can block DNA replication and transcription. In addition, cleavage of AP sites by AP endonucleases or AP lyases generates DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) with 5'- or 3'-blocked ends, respectively. Therefore, we(More)
Repair of chemically modified bases in DNA is accomplished through base excision repair (BER). This pathway is initiated by a specific DNA glycosylase that recognizes and excises the altered base to yield an abasic (AP) site. After cleavage of the AP site by APE1, repair proceeds through re-synthesis and ligation steps. In mammalian cells, the XRCC1(More)
The OGG1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a DNA glycosylase activity that is a functional analog of the Fpg protein from Escherichia coli and excises 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) from damaged DNA. The repair of this ubiquitous kind of oxidative damage is essential to prevent mutations both in bacteria and in yeast. A human cDNA clone carrying(More)
We have investigated the excision of a variety of modified bases from DNA by the Escherichia coli Fpg protein (formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase) [Boiteux, S., O'Connor, T. R., Lederer, F., Gouyette, A., & Laval, J. (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 3916-3922]. DNA used as a substrate was modified either by exposure to ionizing radiation or by photosensitization(More)
Mismatch-repair factors have a prominent role in surveying eukaryotic DNA-replication fidelity and in ensuring correct meiotic recombination. These functions depend on MutL-homolog heterodimers with Mlh1. In humans, MLH1 mutations underlie half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCCs). Here we report crystal structures of the MutLα (Mlh1–Pms1(More)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses two functional homologues (Ntg1p and Ntg2p) of the Escherichia coli endonuclease III protein, a DNA base excision repair N-glycosylase with a broad substrate specificity directed primarily against oxidatively damaged pyrimidines. The substrate specificities of Ntg1p and Ntg2p are similar but not identical, and differences(More)
Formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase (Fpg) is a DNA repair enzyme that excises oxidized purines such as 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) and 2,6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG) from damaged DNA. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Fpg protein from Lactococcus lactis (LlFpg) bound to a carbocyclic FapydG (cFapydG)-containing DNA. The(More)