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In a significant fraction of the Escherichia coli cytosolic proteins, the N-terminal methionine residue incorporated during the translation initiation step is excised. The N-terminal methionine excision is catalyzed by methionyl-aminopeptidase (MAP). Previous studies have suggested that the action of this enzyme could depend mainly on the nature of the(More)
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) can be used to amplify a DNA fragment with the concomitant creation of numerous mutations provided that one dNTP substrate is in excess over the three others. Advantage was taken of this behavior to systematically mutagenize a 291-bp-long DNA fragment and to define the rules relating the frequencies of each possible bp(More)
In Escherichia coli, tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase is known to esterify tRNA(Tyr) with tyrosine. Resulting d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) can be hydrolyzed by a d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase. By monitoring E. coli growth in liquid medium, we systematically searched for other d-amino acids, the toxicity of which might be exacerbated by the inactivation of the gene encoding(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity from Escherichia coli ensures the recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs produced through abortion of translation. This activity, which is essential for cell viability, is carried out by a monomeric protein of 193 residues. The structure of crystalline peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase could be solved at 1.2 A resolution. It indicates a single(More)
Administration of selenium in humans has anticarcinogenic effects. However, the boundary between cancer-protecting and toxic levels of selenium is extremely narrow. The mechanisms of selenium toxicity need to be fully understood. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, selenite in the millimolar range is well tolerated by cells. Here we show that the lethal dose of(More)
Although the general cytotoxicity of selenite is well established, the mechanism by which this compound crosses cellular membranes is still unknown. Here, we show that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transport system used opportunistically by selenite depends on the phosphate concentration in the growth medium. Both the high and low affinity phosphate(More)
To carry initiator Met-tRNA(i)(Met) to the small ribosomal subunit, eukaryal and archaeal cells use a heterotrimeric factor called e/aIF2. These cells also possess a homologue of bacterial IF2 called e/aIF5B. Several results indicate that the mode of action of e/aIF5B resembles some function of bacterial IF2. The e/aIF5B factor promotes the joining of(More)
The Saccharomyces cerevisiae YDL219w (DTD1) gene, which codes for an amino acid sequence sharing 34% identity with the Escherichia coli D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase, was cloned, and its product was functionally characterized. Overexpression in the yeast of the DTD1 gene from a multicopy plasmid increased D-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase activity in crude extracts by(More)
The DNA sequence of a 2,100-bp region containing the argE gene from Escherichia coli has been determined. The nucleotide sequence of the ppc-argE intergenic region was also solved and shown to contain six tandemly repeated REP sequences. Moreover, the oxyR gene has been mapped on the E. coli chromosome and shown to flank the arg operon. The codon(More)
The yihZ gene of Escherichia coli is shown to produce a deacylase activity capable of recycling misaminoacylated D-Tyr-tRNATyr. The reaction is specific and, under optimal in vitro conditions, proceeds at a rate of 6 s-1 with a Km value for the substrate equal to 1 microM. Cell growth is sensitive to interruption of the yihZ gene if D-tyrosine is added to(More)