Learn More
Increasing the blood's capacity for oxygen transport by erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) constitutes a prohibited procedure of performance enhancement according to the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). The advent of orally bio-available small-molecule ESAs such as hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers in the development of novel anti-anaemia(More)
The study of the collision-induced dissociation behavior of various substituted isoquinoline-3-carboxamides, which are amongst a group of drug candidates for the treatment of anemic disorders (e.g., FG-2216), allowed for the formulation of the general mechanisms underlying the unusual fragmentation behavior of this class of compounds. Characterization was(More)
The number of compounds and doping methods in sports is in a state of constant flux. In addition to 'traditional' doping agents, such as anabolic androgenic steroids or erythropoietin, new therapeutics and emerging drugs have considerable potential for misuse in elite sport. Such compounds are commonly based on new chemical structures, and the mechanisms(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) induce modifications in the tight junction (TJ) protein occludin which is crucial for the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. We investigated the role of ROS and MMPs in endothelial autoregulatory response on oxidative stress with respect to occludin and the BBB integrity. The ROS(More)
RATIONALE Clenbuterol (4-amino-α-[(tert-butylamino)methyl]-3,5-dichlorobenzyl alcohol) is approved for human and veterinary use primarily for the treatment of pulmonary afflictions. Despite the authorized administration in cases of medical indications, the misuse of clenbuterol in animal husbandry as well as elite and amateur sport has frequently been(More)
The administration of musk extract, that is, ingredients obtained by extraction of the liquid secreted from the preputial gland or resulting grains of the male musk deer (eg, Moschus moschiferus), has been recommended in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) applications and was listed in the Japanese pharmacopoeia for various indications requiring(More)
Influencing the endurance in elite sports is one of the key points in modern sports science. Recently, a new class of prohibited substances reached in the focus of doping control laboratories and their misuse was classified as gene doping. The adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase activator 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide ribonucleoside (AICAR)(More)
Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have great therapeutic potential in various diseases including cancer cachexia, sarcopenia, and osteoporosis, and the number of drug candidates has been growing over the last decade. The SARM drug candidates S-22 and S-23 belong to one of the most advanced groups of androgen receptor modulators and are based on(More)
RATIONALE Anabolic agents have been top-ranked for many years among statistics of adverse analytical findings compiled by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Besides archetypical anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), alternative substances with similar effects concerning bone and muscle anabolism have been therapeutically pursued. A prominent emerging class(More)
Structure elucidation of steroids by mass spectrometry has been of great importance to various analytical arenas and numerous studies were conducted to provide evidence for the composition and origin of (tandem) mass spectrometry-derived product ions used to characterize and identify steroidal substances. The common product ion at m/z 97 generated from(More)