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Vulnerable periods during the development of the nervous system are sensitive to environmental insults because they are dependent on the temporal and regional emergence of critical developmental processes (i.e., proliferation, migration, differentiation, synaptogenesis, myelination, and apoptosis). Evidence from numerous sources demonstrates that neural(More)
Developmental expression of AChE has been associated with neuronal differentiation (P. G. Layer and E. Willbold, Prog. Histochem. Cytochem. 29, 1-94, 1995). In this study we used pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, a noncholinergic cell line, rich in acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, to examine the effects of cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides on neural(More)
Neurotrophin signaling through Trk receptors is important for differentiation and survival in the developing nervous system. The present study examined the effects of CH(3)Hg on (125)I-nerve growth factor (NGF) binding to the TrkA receptor, NGF-induced activation of the TrkA receptor, and neurite outgrowth in an in vitro model of differentiation using PC12(More)
Using PC12 cells as a model of neuronal differentiation, we have shown that acute exposure to methylmercury (CH3Hg) inhibits nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced activation of TrkA. In the present study, we examined the effects of CH3Hg on pathways activated by NGF. NGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in PC12 cells was time-dependent. Concurrent exposure to(More)
Immunohistochemical expression in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of the alpha(1A) or alpha(1E) subunit of the voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channel was examined in Long-Evans hooded rats on gestational day 18 and postnatal days 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 90, 360 and 720. On gestational day 18 and postnatal day 1, alpha(1A) immunoreactivity was more dense in(More)
Nerve growth factor signal transduction mediated through the trk receptor has been implicated in neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of gestational exposure to the developmental neurotoxicant methylmercury (CH3Hg) on the ontogeny of trk-immunoreactivity (IR). Long-Evans dams were dosed on gestational days(More)
Testing procedures for identification of potential developmental neurotoxicants were evaluated using two prototypical developmental neurotoxicants, methylazoxymethanol (MAM) and methylmercury (MeHg). Evaluation of offspring of Long-Evans rats incorporated assessments of developmental toxicity, neurochemistry, histology, and behavior, with most testing being(More)
Apoptosis is crucial for proper development of the CNS, wherein a significant percentage of all central neurons produced during early ontogeny die by apoptosis. To characterize the pattern of developmental programmed cell death, we assayed rat brainstem, neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum from birth through senescence. Quantitatively, using an ELISA for(More)
Human exposure to the organotins can occur due to their use as polyvinyl chloride heat stabilizers and as marine biocides. The consequences of this exposure for human health are unknown. We initially compared the toxicity of monomethyltin, dimethyltin, and dibutyltin to the known neurotoxicant trimethyltin using an in vitro model of neuronal development in(More)