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OBJECTIVE This paper addresses the critical problem of estimating time-evolving effective brain connectivity. Current approaches based on sliding window analysis or time-varying coefficient models do not simultaneously capture both slow and abrupt changes in causal interactions between different brain regions. METHODS To overcome these limitations, we(More)
This paper applies an expectation-maximization (EM) based Kalman smoother (KS) approach for single-trial event-related potential (ERP) estimation. Existing studies assume a Markov diffusion process for the dynamics of ERP parameters which is recursively estimated by optimal filtering approaches such as Kalman filter (KF). However, these studies only(More)
This paper considers identifying effective cortical connectivity from scalp EEG. Recent studies use time-varying multivariate autoregressive (TV-MAR) models to better describe the changing connectivity between cortical regions where the TV coefficients are estimated by Kalman filter (KF) within a state-space framework. We extend this approach by(More)
This paper investigates the use of linear dynamic models (LDMs) to improve classification of single-trial EEG signals. Existing dynamic classification of EEG uses discrete-state hidden Markov models (HMMs) based on piecewise-stationary assumption, which is inadequate for modeling the highly non-stationary dynamics underlying EEG. The continuous hidden(More)
Inter-channel time-varying (TV) relationships of scalp neural recordings offer deep understanding of the brain sensory and cognitive functions. This paper develops a state space-based TV multivariate autoregressive (MVAR) model for estimating TV-information flow (IF) recruited by different motor imagery (MI) movements. TV model coefficients are computed(More)
Performance of motor imagery (MI)-based brain computer interfaces (BCIs) highly depends on the extraction of features from different brain neural processes. Commonly designed BCIs use band power changes in single channel electroencephalograms (EEGs) to discriminate different MI tasks. In this paper, we studied the information about interactions of spatially(More)
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