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We describe the construction of new helper Ti plasmids forAgrobacterium-mediated plant transformation. These plasmids are derived from three differentAgrobacterium tumefaciens Ti plasmids, the octopine plasmid pTiB6, the nopaline plasmid pTiC58, and the L,L-succinamopine plasmid pTiBo542. The T-DNA regions of these plasmids were deleted using site-directed(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related Agrobacterium species have been known as plant pathogens since the beginning of the 20th century. However, only in the past two decades has the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer DNA to plant cells been harnessed for the purposes of plant genetic engineering. Since the initial reports in the early 1980s using(More)
During the process of crown gall tumorigenesis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens transfers part of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid, the T-DNA, to a plant cell where it eventually becomes stably integrated into the plant genome. Directly repeated DNA sequences, called T-DNA borders, define the left and the right ends of the T-DNA. The T-DNA can be physically(More)
We developed a sensitive procedure to investigate the kinetics of transcription of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens transferred (T)-DNA-encoded beta-glucuronidase gusA (uidA) gene soon after infection of plant suspension culture cells. The procedure uses a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enables detection of gusA transcripts within 18 to 24(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens genetically transforms plant cells by transferring a portion of the bacterial Ti-plasmid, the T-DNA, to the plant and integrating the T-DNA into the plant genome. Little is known about the T-DNA integration process, and no plant genes involved in integration have yet been identified. We characterized an Arabidopsis mutant generated(More)
We have identified T-DNA tagged Arabidopsis mutants that are resistant to transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens (rat mutants). These mutants are highly recalcitrant to the induction of both crown gall tumors and phosphinothricin-resistant calli. The results of transient GUS (β-glucuronidase) assays suggest that some of these mutants are blocked at an(More)
Bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) represents one of the most advanced and powerful tools for studying and visualizing protein-protein interactions in living cells. In this method, putative interacting protein partners are fused to complementary non-fluorescent fragments of an autofluorescent protein, such as the yellow spectral variant of the(More)
Successful transformation of plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens requires that the bacterial T-complex actively escorts T-DNA into the host's nucleus. VirD2 and VirE2 are virulence proteins on the T-complex that have plant-functional nuclear localization signal sequences that may recruit importin alpha proteins of the plant for nuclear import. In this(More)
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a family of complex proteoglycans widely distributed in plants. The Arabidopsis rat1 mutant, previously characterized as resistant to Agrobacterium tumefaciens root transformation, is due to a mutation in the gene for the Lys-rich AGP, AtAGP17. We show that the phenotype of rat1 correlates with down-regulation of AGP17 in(More)
Germ-line transformation (vacuum infiltration) is frequently used to transform Arabidopsis thaliana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have recently identified several Arabidopsis ecotypes and T-DNA-tagged mutants that are recalcitrant to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cut root segments. Some of these ecotypes and mutants are deficient in their(More)