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Four tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) were trained to choose from 2 hook-like tools, 1 of which successfully led to collecting food, whereas the other did not because of inappropriate spatial arrangement of the tool and the food. In Experiment 1, all of the monkeys successfully learned the basic task. The monkeys performed successfully with tools of(More)
Using a dialysis electrode, we recently developed an oxygen-independent system for real-time measurement of the glutamate concentration in the extracellular space ([Glu]e) during ischemia. This system allows separate evaluation of intra-ischemic biphase [Glu]e elevation, i.e. release from synaptic vesicles (1st phase), reversed uptake of glutamate from(More)
In the pharmacological field, the development of drugs effective for dementia is now widely anticipated because of the increase in the elderly population. Dementia has some histological degeneration in the brain, including the hippocampus. Preclinical evaluations of such drugs use animal models with memory impairment, since memory impairment is a major(More)
Accumulating evidence on the molecular and cellular basis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced neurodegeneration suggests that oxidative stress is involved. Heme oxygenase (HO) and cyclooxygenase (COX) play physiologically important roles in the CNS. Conversely, HO and COX also can increase oxidative stress. Recent studies suggest that c-Jun phosphorylation is(More)
An in vitro comparison demonstrated that the concentration of NIK-247 that inhibited cholinesterase (ChE) activities to half the normal level (ID50) was 1.3 x 10(-6) M. This value was higher than those for both physostigmine (PHY; 1.2 x 10(-7) M) and tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA; 3.6 x 10(-7) M), which are used as cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment(More)
This study reports that postischemic apoptotic cell death of the hippocampal cornu ammonis (CA) 1 neurons is delayed in aged gerbils. Age-related changes in the process of CA1 neuronal death following transient ischemia was studied. Two groups of Mongolian gerbils were used in this study, which compared adult (4-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) animals by(More)
In vivo continuous real-time measurement of glutamate concentration was performed during anoxia using a dialysis electrode. By this method, the temporal resolution of the measurement of glutamate concentration was improved due to shortening of the time delay compared with the microdialysis method, and changes in the glutamate concentration were more clearly(More)
We performed real-time monitoring of the extracellular glutamate dynamics in the rat striatum in vivo using the microdialysis electrode technique, during an experimental penumbral condition of moderate global cerebral ischemia and activated glutamate receptors. The local cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with a laser-Doppler probe. One minute after(More)
Brain hypothermia during ischemia may have a neuroprotective effect on pathological and functional outcomes in vivo. Although a microdialysis study demonstrated that hypothermia decreases glutamate release into the extracellular space, the issue of whether this suppression of the glutamate elevation normally accompanying ischemia is attributable to(More)