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The complete sequence of the 16,569-base pair human mitochondrial genome is presented. The genes for the 12S and 16S rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, cytochrome c oxidase subunits I, II and III, ATPase subunit 6, cytochrome b and eight other predicted protein coding genes have been located. The sequence shows extreme economy in that the genes have none or only a few(More)
A balanced (1;11)(q42.1;q14.3) translocation segregates with schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders in a large Scottish family (maximum LOD = 6.0). We hypothesize that the translocation is the causative event and that it directly disrupts gene function. We previously reported a dearth of genes in the breakpoint region of chromosome 11 and it is(More)
A primary role for the kidney in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension has long been recognized, but the pathogenetic interactions among renal hemodynamics, hormonal and hereditary factors, and dietary sodium intake remain enigmatic. Reduction in filtration surface area, whether acquired in the course of intrinsic renal disease or after surgical(More)
Herein we review the evidence that neocortical projection neurons and interneurons are derived from distinct regions within the telencephalon. While neocortical projection neurons are derived from the ventricular zone of the neocortex, neocortical interneurons appear to be derived from the germinal zone of the basal ganglia. These interneurons follow a(More)
Micropuncture and morphologic studies were performed in four groups of male Munich-Wistar rats after removal of the right kidney and segmental infarction of two-thirds of the left kidney. Groups 1 and 3 received no specific therapy. Groups 2 and 4 were treated with the angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, 50 mg/liter of which was put in(More)
BACKGROUND Anorexia-related weight loss can have devastating consequences on quality-of-life, morbidity, and mortality. Without a simple tool to evaluate appetite, health care providers often use inaccurate surrogates, such as measurement of energy consumption and nutritional risk, to reflect appetite. OBJECTIVE We aimed to validate a simple tool for(More)
Two groups of adult male Munich-Wistar rats and a third group of nondiabetic age-matched and weight-matched normal control rats underwent micropuncture study 1 mo, and morphologic studies 14 mo, after induction of streptozotocin diabetes or sham treatment. All animals were fed standard rat chow. Diabetic rats received daily ultralente insulin to maintain(More)
A new method for typing single nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA is described. In this method, specific fragments of genomic DNA containing the polymorphic site(s) are first amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using one regular and one phosphorothioate-modified primer. The double-stranded PCR product is rendered single-stranded by treatment with(More)