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We do not have currently satisfactory clinical and anatomical correlates to gauge disability in multiple sclerosis. Structural biomarkers (such as MRI) are hindered because they cannot precisely segregate demyelination from axonal elements of tissue injury within the CNS. Axonal degeneration in multiple sclerosis is related to irreversible disability, which(More)
Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides in vivo information about the pathology of multiple sclerosis lesions. Increases in mean diffusivity (MD) and reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA) have been found and may represent axonal disruption. The optic nerve is an ideal structure for study by DT-MRI but previous clinical studies did(More)
From 1991-2002, we treated 58 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) using the humanised monoclonal antibody, Campath-1H, which causes prolonged T lymphocyte depletion. Clinical and surrogate markers of inflammation were suppressed. In both the relapsing-remitting (RR) and secondary progressive (SP) stages of the illness, Campath-1H reduced the annual(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be a likely cause of persistent disability after a multiple sclerosis relapse; therefore, noninvasive in vivo markers specific for axonal loss are needed. We used optic neuritis as a model of multiple sclerosis relapse to quantify axonal loss of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and secondary retinal ganglion cell loss in the(More)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of brain atrophy are often considered to be a marker of axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) but evidence is limited. Optic neuritis is a common manifestation of MS and results in optic nerve atrophy. Retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) imaging is a non-invasive way of detecting axonal loss following optic neuritis.(More)
Axonal loss is thought to be the predominant cause of disability in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). The retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) is composed largely of unmyelinated axons of retinal ganglion cells, and is accessible to study with optical coherence tomography (OCT), giving a measure of axonal loss. OCT measures of the RNFL thickness (RNFLT) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute optic neuritis due to an inflammatory demyelinating lesion of the optic nerve is often seen in association with multiple sclerosis. Although functional recovery usually follows the acute episode of visual loss, persistent visual deficits are common and are probably due to axonal loss. The mechanisms of axonal loss and early features that(More)
BACKGROUND Several studies with optical coherence tomography (OCT) have demonstrated thinning of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in patients with optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. Similar studies have not been performed with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP), which relies on different physical phenomena. This study was designed to use SLP to(More)
The declared "war on cancer" aimed to eradicate this disease using our knowledge of cancer cell biology to develop novel therapeutics. One such target of these novel therapies has been the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene. Unique in the approach to abolishing function of this gene coded receptor, it was the first target of new monoclonal(More)
BACKGROUND Pathogenic mutations of the human mitochondrial genome are associated with well-characterized, progressive neurological syndromes, with mutations in the transfer RNA genes being particularly prominent. OBJECTIVE To describe a novel mitochondrial transfer RNA(Pro) gene mutation in a woman with a myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers-like(More)