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The effect of the acetylcholine releaser 4-aminopyridine on ventilation was studied by recording and quantifying the efferent phrenic nerve activity in 40 paralysed and vagotomized cats; with arterial Po2, PCO2 and pH kept constant. 4-Aminopyridine, given intravenously or in the vertebral artery, stimulates the phrenic nerve activity in a dose dependent(More)
In 25 patients with spasticity, pharmacokinetics and effects of dantrolene sodium were investigated after prolonged administration. A beneficial effect occurred in seven patients. The results were better on 100 mg daily than on a higher daily dose. An increase of the daily dose from 200 to 400 mg was not associated with higher blood levels. Many side(More)
Five healthy human volunteers were anaesthetized on two separate occasions, 1 week apart, using a standard diazepam-ketamine induction followed by an infusion of ketamine for 1 h. Ten minutes after stopping the infusion, either 4-aminopyridine 0.3 mg kg--1 in saline or the same volume of saline alone was administered i.v. It was concluded that(More)
1. The effects of 4-aminopyridine on the contractility of the fast-contracting tibialis anterior and the slow-contracting soleus muscles of cats under chloralose anaesthesia have been studied. 2. 4-Aminopyridine, in doses of 0.5 mg/kg and above, produced a slowly developing increase in the twitch tension of directly stimulated chronically denervated and of(More)
Unexpectedly, it was observed that the P2-purinoceptor antagonist, suramin (10 microM to 1 mM), reversed the muscle paralysis caused by structurally unrelated non-depolarizing relaxants. Suramin competitively reversed the blocking action of pancuronium. Both the pre- and postsynaptic blockade of nicotinic receptors by pancuronium was counteracted, as shown(More)
1. Rats were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone and maximal twitches of a tibialis anterior muscle were evoked by stimulation of the motor nerve. 2. Suramin, injected intravenously in a series of cumulative bolus doses, each 15 mg kg-1, completely reversed a 90% depression of twitches maintained by a continuous intravenous infusion of pancuronium. The(More)
The interaction between two non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents, pancuronium bromide and vecuronium bromide, has been studied at standardized levels of neuromuscular blockade and alternating the sequence of their administration, in 40 surgical patients. The drug administered first appeared invariably to play a dominant role in influencing both(More)
To elucidate the interaction of 4-aminopyridine with neostigmine and pyridostigmine, the authors studied 57 anesthetized surgical patients using a technique of constant infusion of pancuronium to quantitate antagonist activity. 4-Aminopyridine, 0.15 or 0.35 mg/kg, produced no antagonism, while 0.5 mg/kg produced a mean 24 +/- 6 per cent (peak) antagonism.(More)
Neostigmine failed to modify the development of neuromuscular block in the presence of a high local concentration of tubocurarine. Only when the concentration of tubocurarine was reduced, and a suitable concentration gradient established between the receptor area and the plasma, did neostigmine increase the rate of recovery from the action of(More)