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We put forward a fragile zero watermarking scheme to detect and characterize malicious modifications made to a database relation. Most of the existing watermarking schemes for relational databases introduce intentional errors or permanent distortions as marks into the database original content. These distortions inevitably degrade the data quality and data(More)
INTRODUCTION Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is difficult to diagnose. Recent data suggest quantitative endotracheal aspirate (ETA) may be noninferior diagnostically to quantitative bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We hypothesized this would be the case. METHODS Blind quantitative ETA and BAL were performed on 150 consecutive ventilated patients with(More)
Character recognition has been fascinating and intense field of pattern recognition research since early days of computer. This task becomes more challenging when it involves Urdu script based languages especially written in handwritten Nasta'liq font due to the large variations and complexity of the script. Fuzzy logic is an important tool to deal with(More)
Handwritten character recognition is one of the most fascinating, complex and challenging task of pattern recognition research and it has been an ongoing research since the early days of computer. The aim of character recognition is to imitate the human reading capabilities to machine so that it can act like human. Although it is a very difficult task, it(More)
Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) allows us to visualize functional information about a patient's specific organ. A myocardial perfusion SPECT is a nuclear imaging based technique used to evaluate heart's blood supply and the damage that might have been caused by a heart attack. However, visual interpretation of nuclear images is subject to(More)
This paper proposes a method for Urdu language text search in image based Urdu Text. In the proposed method two databases of images have been created; first one for training purpose and another for testing purpose. Training database is named 'TrainDatabase' and testing database as 'TestDatabase'. Training database consists of all(More)
We report on the development of an adaptive wavelet image coder based on stack-run representation of the quantized coefficients. The coder works by selecting an optimal wavelet packet basis for the given image and encoding the quantization indices for significant coefficients and zero runs between coefficients using a 4-ary arithmetic coder. Due to the fact(More)