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In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic(More)
Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH-) and this vulnerability is proportional to the number of affected relatives (FH density). The risk for developing substance use disorders peaks during adolescence to early(More)
PURPOSE To examine the precision of glutamate detection using a very short echo time (TE) phase rotation STEAM (PR-STEAM) sequence. MATERIALS AND METHODS Spectrosopic data were acquired from the anterior cingulate gyrus in nine healthy adults using 6.5-msec TE PR-STEAM, 40-msec TE PRESS, 72-msec TE STEAM, and TE-Averaging with an effective TE of 105 msec(More)
We hypothesized that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion and its elevated aging-related decline in schizophrenia patients may be caused by elevated hyperintensive white matter (HWM) lesions, by reduced permeability-diffusivity index (PDI), or both. We tested this hypothesis in 40/30 control/patient participants. FA values for the corpus(More)
The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG(More)
PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of a very short echo time (TE) phase rotation stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence at 3T with a focus on the detection of glutathione. METHODS Ten healthy subjects were scanned on two separate visits. Spectra were acquired from voxels placed in the anterior and posterior(More)
Elevated rate of age-related decline in white matter integrity, indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging, was reported in patients with schizophrenia. Its etiology is unknown. We hypothesized that a decline of blood perfusion to the white matter may underlie the accelerated age-related reduction in FA in schizophrenia. Resting(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the reproducibility of spectroscopic measurements from the anterior cingulate (AC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions at 7T using a 32-channel head coil. MATERIALS AND METHODS Spectra were acquired in four healthy subjects each scanned twice using a stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence, and a(More)
Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared with older control participants. One-hundred forty-five(More)
INTRODUCTION Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are present in the cerebral white matter (WM). We hypothesized that WM response to nicotine can be detected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); and that such responses may be associated with nicotine-led cognitive enhancement in sustained attention. METHODS A randomized, nicotine-placebo patch, crossover,(More)