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In vivo measurement of neurotransmitters and modulators is now feasible with advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) techniques. This review provides a basic tutorial of MRS, describes the methods available to measure brain glutamate, glutamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutathione, N-acetylaspartylglutamate, glycine, and serine at magnetic(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the reproducibility of spectroscopic measurements from the anterior cingulate (AC) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions at 7T using a 32-channel head coil. MATERIALS AND METHODS Spectra were acquired in four healthy subjects each scanned twice using a stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM) sequence, and a(More)
Depression is highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and is associated with significant clinical consequences, but there is no known biomarker for depression in schizophrenia. One of the putative neurochemical biomarkers for depression in major depressive disorder (MDD) is reduced cerebral concentration of myo-Inositol. We examined whether(More)
Fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion in cerebral white matter (WM), derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is a sensitive index of microscopic WM integrity. Physiological and metabolic factors that explain intersubject variability in FA values were evaluated in two cohorts of healthy adults of different age spans (N=65, range: 28-50years; and(More)
Individuals with a family history of substance use disorders (FH+) are at a greater risk of developing substance use disorders than their peers with no such family histories (FH-) and this vulnerability is proportional to the number of affected relatives (FH density). The risk for developing substance use disorders peaks during adolescence to early(More)
OBJECTIVE Demonstrate that occupational exposure to nonhypoxic hypobaria is associated with subcortical white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS Eighty-three altitude chamber personnel (PHY), 105 U-2 pilots (U2P), and 148 age- controlled and health-matched doctorate degree(More)
Various lines of evidence suggest that brain bioenergetics and mitochondrial function may be altered in schizophrenia. On the basis of prior phosphorus-31 (31P)-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), post-mortem and preclinical studies, this study was designed to test the hypothesis that abnormal glycolysis leads to elevated lactate concentrations in(More)
We hypothesized that reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of water diffusion and its elevated aging-related decline in schizophrenia patients may be caused by elevated hyperintensive white matter (HWM) lesions, by reduced permeability-diffusivity index (PDI), or both. We tested this hypothesis in 40/30 control/patient participants. FA values for the corpus(More)
The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG(More)
We investigated in vivo neurochemical markers reflective of neuronal health and glial activation to determine if these could yield clues regarding the reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter and accelerated decline of FA with age in schizophrenia. Participants with schizophrenia and healthy controls completed diffusion tensor imaging to assess FA(More)