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We describe the isolation and characterization of a cDNA encoding the alpha subunit of a new voltage-sensitive sodium channel, microI, from rat skeletal muscle. The 1840 amino acid microI peptide is homologous to alpha subunits from rat brain, but, like the protein from eel electroplax, lacks an extended (approximately 200) amino acid segment between(More)
The tetrodotoxin-binding protein purified from electroplax of Electrophorus electricus has been reincorporated into multilamellar vesicles that were used for patch recording. When excised patches of these reconstituted membranes were voltage clamped in the absence of neurotoxins, voltage-dependent single-channel currents were recorded. These displayed(More)
The functional reconstitution of the voltage-regulated Na channel purified from the electroplax of Electrophorus electricus is described. Reconstitution was achieved by removing detergent with Bio-Beads SM-2 followed by freeze-thaw-sonication in the presence of added liposomes. This preparation displayed heat-stable binding of 3H-labeled tetrodotoxin (TTX)(More)
A fluorescence assay for measuring Na channel activation in liposomes containing voltage-sensitive Na channels isolated from Electrophorus electricus is described. The assay is based on transport of a heavy-metal cation, T1+, through the activated channel to quench fluorescence of an internalized, water-soluble chromophore. The channel is "locked" in a(More)
At equilibrium, voltage-sensitive sodium channels normally are closed at all potentials. They open transiently in response to changes in membrane voltage or chronically under the influence of certain neurotoxins. Covalent modifications that result in chronic opening may help identify molecular domains involved in conductance regulation. Here, the purified(More)
Recent immunohistochemical evidence from the rat, indicating that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-containing fibres of central nervous origin project to the pars intermedia of the pituitary1,2, prompts inquiry into the function of this innervation. There is electrophysiological evidence that GABA acts directly on melanotrophs isolated from rat, through(More)
Ba ions caused an intense and prolonged discharge of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) from perifused neurointermediate lobes of mouse pituitaries and dispersed pars intermedia cells. The effect persisted in chronically cultured lobes or cells. It did not require Ca, but, like the Ca-dependent response to excess K, was blocked by cyanide combined with(More)