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The Forkhead Box O (FOXO) transcription factors regulate diverse cellular processes, and in skeletal muscle are both necessary and sufficient for muscle atrophy. Although the regulation of FOXO by Akt is well evidenced in skeletal muscle, the current study demonstrates that FOXO is also regulated in muscle via the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activities(More)
Cachexia is characterized by inexorable muscle wasting that significantly affects patient prognosis and increases mortality. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of this muscle wasting is of significant importance. Recent work showed that components of the forkhead box O (FoxO) pathway are increased in skeletal muscle during cachexia. In the current(More)
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer promise as therapeutic aids in the repair of tendon, ligament, and bone damage suffered by sport horses. The objective of the study was to identify and characterize stem-like cells from newborn foal umbilical cord blood (UCB). UCB was collected and MSC isolated using human reagents. The cells exhibit a fibroblast-like(More)
Two transcription factor families that are activated during multiple conditions of skeletal muscle wasting are nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and forkhead box O (Foxo). There is clear evidence that both NF-κB and Foxo activation are sufficient to cause muscle fiber atrophy and they are individually required for at least half of the fiber atrophy during muscle(More)
Tendon injuries affect all levels of athletic horses and represent a significant loss to the equine industry. Accumulation of microdamage within the tendon architecture leads to formation of core lesions. Traditional approaches to tendon repair are based on an initial period of rest to limit the inflammatory process followed by a controlled reloading(More)
Niche localized HGF plays an integral role in G(0) exit and the return to mitotic activity of adult skeletal muscle satellite cells. HGF actions are regulated by MET initiated intracellular signaling events that include recruitment of SHP2, a protein tyrosine phosphatase. The importance of SHP2 in HGF-mediated signaling was examined in myoblasts and primary(More)
Recovery from tendon injury is based on long periods of rest, which results in sub-optimal repair, often replacing tendon with fibrocartilage scar tissue. Recently, the use of stem cells in equine tendon repair has been attempted with variable success. The objective of this work was to determine the expression of scleraxis (scx) and tenascin C (TnC), two(More)
With improvements in care, the equine population is living longer, remaining active, and competing at increasingly older ages. Both advancing age and exercise result in increased concentrations of circulating and local cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Athletic endeavors in the aged horse may further increase the proinflammatory(More)
Poor maternal nutrition inhibits muscle development and postnatal muscle growth. Satellite cells are myogenic precursor cells that contribute to postnatal muscle growth, and their activity can be evaluated by the expression of several transcription factors. Paired-box (Pax)7 is expressed in quiescent and active satellite cells. MyoD is expressed in(More)
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation can result in reduced muscle mass and increased adiposity of the muscle tissue in the offspring. This can have long-lasting consequences on offspring health and productivity. However, the mechanisms by which poor maternal nutrition affects postnatal muscle development are poorly understood. We hypothesized that poor(More)