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The pathology of type 2 diabetes is complex, with multiple stages culminating in a functional β-cell mass that is insufficient to meet the body's needs. Although the broad outlines of the disease etiology are known, many critical questions remain to be answered before next-generation therapeutics can be developed. In order to further elucidate the(More)
Optimal tuning of enzyme signaling is critical for cellular homeostasis. We use fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters in live cells to follow conformational transitions that tune the affinity of a multidomain signal transducer, protein kinase C (PKC), for optimal response to second messengers. This enzyme comprises two diacylglycerol sensors, the(More)
Pancreatic β cells are mostly post-mitotic, but it is unclear what locks them in this state. Perturbations including uncontrolled hyperglycemia can drive β cells into more pliable states with reduced cellular insulin levels, increased β cell proliferation, and hormone mis-expression, but it is unknown whether reduced insulin production itself plays a role.(More)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal cancers, yet it remains understudied and poorly understood. Hyperinsulinemia has been reported to be a risk factor of pancreatic cancer, and the rapid rise of hyperinsulinemia associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes foreshadows a rise in cancer incidence. However, the actions of insulin at the various(More)
OBJECTIVE The role and mechanisms of insulin receptor internalization remain incompletely understood. Previous trafficking studies of insulin receptors involved fluorescent protein tagging at their termini, manipulations that may be expected to result in dysfunctional receptors. Our objective was to determine the trafficking route and molecular mechanisms(More)
Insulin modulates the biochemical pathways controlling lipid uptake, lipolysis and lipogenesis at multiple levels. Elevated insulin levels are associated with obesity, and conversely, dietary and pharmacological manipulations that reduce insulin have occasionally been reported to cause weight loss. However, the causal role of insulin hypersecretion in the(More)
Antiadiposity effects of caloric restriction (CR) are associated with reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling, but it is unclear whether the effects of CR would be additive to genetically reducing circulating insulin. To address this question, we examined female Ins1(+/-):Ins2(-/-) mice and Ins1(+/+):Ins2(-/-) littermate controls on either an ad libitum or 60% CR(More)
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Insulin therapy is required for many patients with the obesity-related disorder type 2 diabetes, but is also associated with weight gain. The specific location of adipose tissue location matters to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We investigated effects of exogenous insulin on fat distribution in the high-fat/high-sucrose fed rat(More)
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