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Prevalence estimates are used by decision makers such as policy makers and risk assessors to make choices related to certain diseases and infections. Paratuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is a chronic infection particularly resulting in economic losses among farmed ruminants. Therefore, this infection is of concern(More)
Infections with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be latent for years without affecting the animal, but the animal may become infectious or clinical at some point. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis can be a challenge primarily in latent stages of the infection, and different diagnosis interpretations are usually required by the variety of(More)
To analyze how infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) affects the shape of lactation curves, a three-level hierarchical test-day model was set up with fat-corrected test-day milk yield (FCTM) as response. Milk samples from 6955 cows in 108 Danish dairy herds were tested with ELISA to detect antibodies against MAP. Optical densities(More)
Paratuberculosis is a chronic infection of ruminants and other species caused by Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (Map). Establishing test strategies for paratuberculosis will require insight into the temporal aspects of certainty with a given test. In this study, the age at which cows tested positive by ELISA and fecal culture (FC) was(More)
The purpose of this study was to estimate the genetic variation and the heritability of the ability to establish an immune response by producing antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Antibody levels were determined using an ELISA and measuring optical density (OD) values from milk samples of 11,535 cows from 99 herds. The pedigree of(More)
Two cross-sectional studies were carried out to determine the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) response to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) by cow characteristics and stage of lactation. One of the studies (referred to as "milk-group") used milk samples from all lactating cows (n=7994) in 108 Danish dairy herds. The other study(More)
In a cross-sectional study on milk samples from 1155 cows from 22 Danish dairy herds, selected risk factors for paratuberculosis were identified. The diagnostic procedure used was an indirect enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. A sample was considered test-positive if it had a(More)
Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infections cause major losses to the dairy industry. Transmission of MAP occurs primarily via feces and in utero, but MAP can also be excreted in colostrum and milk. The objective of this study was to determine whether colostrum and milk fed to calves are important risk factors for infection with MAP. A(More)
The use of gradient anion-exchange HPLC, with a simple post-column detection system, is described for the separation of myo-inositol phosphates, including "phytic acid" (myo-inositol hexaphosphate). Hexa-, penta-, tetra-, tri- and diphosphate members of this homologous series are clearly resolved within 30 min. This method should facilitate analysis and(More)
A possible mode of transmission for the ruminant pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from cattle to humans is via milk and dairy products. Although controversially, MAP has been suggested as the causative agent of Crohn's disease and its presence in consumers' milk might be of concern. A method to detect MAP in milk with real-time PCR(More)