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1. Whole-cell recordings were made from rat nodose ganglion neurones in culture and from human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells stably transfected to express P2X2, P2X3 or both receptor subunits. We examined the blocking actions of 2',3'-O-trinitrophenyl-ATP (TNP-ATP) on currents evoked by the agonists ATP and alpha, beta-methylene ATP. 2. In cells(More)
P2X receptors are membrane proteins that incorporate a cation-selective ion channel that can be opened by the binding of extracellular ATP. They associate as hetero- and homo-multimers of currently unknown stoichiometry. In this study, we have used Xenopus laevis oocytes to express rat P2X(2) receptor subunits, which carry a cysteine mutation at position(More)
1. The changes in urinary and renal tissue composition induced by continuous, intravenous infusion of lysine-vasopressin (2.5, 5, 15 and 60 mu-u./min. 100 g body wt.) for up to 4(1/2) hr in water-loaded, conscious rats were determined.2. Both the magnitude of, and the time required to attain, maximal and stable responses, in respect to both urinary and(More)
The effects of topiramate on food intake and body composition were investigated in rats fed a high-fat diet and compared with rats that were pair fed or treated with D-fenfluramine. Topiramate (40 mg. kg. d for 80 d) reduced body-weight gain in a manner similar to that of pair-fed rats and D-fenfluramine-treated rats. The reduction in body fat accounted for(More)
Thyroid hormones are necessary for brain development. gamma-Amino-butyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons comprise the bulk of local inhibitory circuitry in brain, many of which contain the calcium binding protein, parvalbumin (PV). A previous report indicated that severe postnatal hypothyroidism reduces PV immunoreactivity (IR) in rat neocortex. We examined(More)
1. Reabsorption of glucose, sodium, total solute (osmoles) and water in the rat proximal tubule (pars convoluta) were studied by free-flow micropuncture at normal (saline-infused), suppressed (saline with phlorizin) and elevated (glucose infusion) glucose reabsorption rates. 2. Phlorizin completely inhibited net glucose reabsorption, approximately halved(More)
1. The changes in urinary and renal tissue composition induced by continuous, intravenous infusion of lysine-vasopressin (60 mu-u./min. 100 g body wt. until steady-state conditions prevailed) in normally hydrated, hydropaenic, saline-loaded (0.9%, w/v) and mannitol-loaded (15%, w/v) rats were determined and compared with those induced in water-loaded(More)
1. The time course and extent of changes in the composition of renal tissue slices in water diuresis were determined by sacrificing groups of rats before and during the intravenous infusion of dextrose (2.5 g/100 ml.) in amounts sufficient to administer over 2 hr, and subsequently to maintain for up to 7(1/2) hr, a positive fluid load of 4% body weight.2.(More)
1. Changes in water and solute outputs of hydropaenic, normal and hydrated conscious rats were determined during intravenous infusion (0.2 ml./min) of isotonic (0.9%) saline for 4 hr; renal tissue composition was determined before, and after 1 or 2 hr, infusion.2. In normal and hydrated rats increased excretion of water and sodium was such that urinary(More)
We have shown that nitric oxide treatment for 30–90 min causes inhibition of insulin secretion, DNA damage and disturbs sub-cellular organization in rat and human islets of Langerhans and HIT-T15 cells. Here rat islets and beta-cell lines were treated with various free radical generating systems S-nitrosoglutathione (nitric oxide), xanthine oxidase plus(More)