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R ® is a registered trademark. RAND Europe is a not-for-profit research institute whose mission is to help improve policy and decisionmaking through research and analysis. RAND's publications do not necessarily reflect the opinions of its research clients and sponsors. 1 asked RAND Europe to review the assessment process for the impact element of the(More)
BACKGROUND Both Helicobacter pylori genotype and host genetic polymorphisms play a role in determining the clinical consequences of H. pylori infection. We investigated whether there are any combinations of bacterial and host genotypes that are particularly associated with the occurrence of gastric carcinoma. METHODS Genotypic variations in(More)
PURPOSE Helicobacter pylori is a major cause of gastric carcinoma. To investigate a possible link between bacterial infection and genetic instability of the host genome, we examined the effect of H. pylori infection on known cellular repair pathways in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, various types of genetic instabilities in the nuclear and mitochondrial DNA(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) families carry CDH1 heterozygous germline mutations; their tumors acquire complete CDH1 inactivation through "2nd-hit" mechanisms. Most frequently, this occurs via promoter hypermethylation (epigenetic modification), and less frequently via CDH1 mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). We(More)
Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a serine/threonine kinase, regulating MAPkinase signalling, in which cancer-associated mutations have never been reported. In this study, 174 primary gastrointestinal cancers (48 hereditary and 126 sporadic forms) and 7 colorectal cancer cell lines were screened for MLK3 mutations. MLK3 mutations were significantly(More)
Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. The presence of microsatellite instability (MSI) in brain tumors, particularly medulloblastomas, has not been properly addressed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of MSI in medulloblastoma carcinogenesis. MSI status was determined in 36 patients using a pentaplex PCR(More)
The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Invention for Innovation (i4i) programme supports the development of innovative medical technologies for patient benefit. The i4i product development stream involves collaborative projects between at least two partners from academia, the NHS and industry. Medical technology innovators apply for funding for(More)
The aim of the present study is to explore obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-related abnormalities in white matter connectivity in OCD for a core region associated with inhibitory control [i.e. inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)]. Fifteen patients with OCD (11 men) and 15 healthy controls (nine men) underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning to study four(More)
Individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) present a set of cognitive, affective and motor symptoms that resemble those of patients with lesions to the cerebellum. Although there is some evidence for overall structural alterations in this brain region in WS, explorations on cerebellar white matter and cerebellar cortex volumes remain rather neglected. We aimed(More)