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Many juvenile mammals play, and rates and patterns of play behavior often differ between young males and females. The sexual dimorphisms typical of mammalian play suggest that it might be influenced by gonadal hormones. Moreover, because play competes with growth, physical development, and acquisition of fat reserves for available energy, play behavior(More)
We tested predictions of hypotheses suggesting that the steroid hormones, testosterone (T), progesterone (P), and estradiol (E2), contribute to the energetic regulation of behaviors associated with rearing young in free-living female Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). We provisioned some female S. beldingi with food rich in fat and(More)
Natal dispersal, the permanent departure of an individual from its birth site, is sex biased in most mammals, with males dispersing at higher rates or over greater distances than do female conspecifics. Because dispersal movements may be energetically expensive, their occurrence should theoretically be influenced by energy availability. Moreover, the male(More)
In the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, surveillance of pneumococcal disease and carriage remains of utmost importance as important changes may occur in the population. To monitor these alterations reliable genotyping methods are required for large-scale applications. We introduced a high throughput multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat(More)
Pneumococcal disease is frequent at the extremes of age. While several studies have looked at colonization among young children, much less is known among the elderly. We aimed to evaluate pneumococcal carriage among elderly adults living in Portugal. Between April 2010 and December 2012, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs of adults over 60 years of age,(More)
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