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The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better(More)
OBJECTIVE The Game Dice Task (GDT) was developed to measure decision making under known risk. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the GDT to a Brazilian population. METHOD After the GDT was translated and back-translated to Brazilian Portuguese and evaluated by eight bilingual judges, 175 Brazilian adults were divided into two groups - 160(More)
Leptin has emerged over the past decade as a key hormone not only in energy balance regulation but also in neuroendocrine and inflammatory processes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether hyperleptinemia deregulates neuropeptides during weight loss. A total of 86 post-pubertal obese adolescents (with or without hyperleptinemia) participated(More)
OBJECTIVE Electroacupuncture (EA) as well as moxibustion stimulation has been reported to produce an excitatory effect on the gastrointestinal motility of the rat. Serotonergic neurons of the mioenteric and submucous plexus are major participants in the gastrointestinal physiology. Here, we compared the outcomes of the stimulation of a specific set of(More)
Here we review the differential contribution of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) and superior colliculus (SC) to the generation of rat defensive behaviors. The results of studies involving sine-wave and rectangular pulse electrical stimulation and chemical (NMDA) stimulation are summarized. Stimulation of SC and PAG produced freezing and flight(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to examine the cerebellar volume of subjects at different stages of Alzheimer's disease and to investigate whether volume reductions in this structure are related to cognitive decline. METHOD Ninety-six subjects from an epidemiological study were submitted to a magnetic resonance imaging scan and evaluated using the(More)
Dyspnea, hunger for air, and urge to flee are the cardinal symptoms of panic attacks. Patients also show baseline respiratory abnormalities and a higher rate of comorbid and antecedent respiratory diseases. Panic attacks are also precipitated by infusion of sodium lactate and inhalation of 5% CO₂ in predisposed patients but not in healthy volunteers or(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES One task that has been used to assess memory effects of prior total sleep deprivation (TSD) is the immediate free recall of word lists; however, results have been mixed. A possible explanation for this is task impurity, since recall of words from different serial positions reflects use of distinct types of memory (last words: short-term(More)
Recent indications of oxidative stress in hypothalamus of sleep deprived rats prompted us to address the possibility that sleep deprivation may induce pathological cell loss changes in brain. Indices of necrosis and apoptosis were quantified after 96 h of sleep deprivation induced by the classical platform technique in rats. Binding of the "peripheral-type"(More)
The classification of short duration events in the EEG during sleep, as the A stage of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) is a tedious and error prone task. The number of events under normal conditions is large (several hundreds), and it is necessary to mark the limits of the events with precision, otherwise the time sensitive classification of the CAP(More)