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Oxidative stress is a major aspect of Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. We have investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and neuronal binding of Abeta oligomers (also known as ADDLs). ADDLs are known to accumulate in brain tissue of AD patients and are considered centrally related to pathogenesis. Using hippocampal neuronal cultures, we found(More)
Soluble amyloid β-peptide oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupt neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and synaptic function. Here, we report that AβOs at sublethal concentrations generate prolonged Ca(2+) signals in primary hippocampal neurons; incubation in Ca(2+)-free solutions, inhibition of ryanodine(More)
Synapse deterioration underlying severe memory loss in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is thought to be caused by soluble amyloid beta (Abeta) oligomers. Mechanistically, soluble Abeta oligomers, also referred to as Abeta-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs), act as highly specific pathogenic ligands, binding to sites localized at particular synapses. This(More)
Defective brain insulin signaling has been suggested to contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a connection between AD and diabetes has been suggested, a major unknown is the mechanism(s) by which insulin resistance in the brain arises in individuals with AD. Here, we show that serine phosphorylation of(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes appear to share similar pathogenic mechanisms. dsRNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) underlies peripheral insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. PKR phosphorylates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α-P), and AD brains exhibit elevated phospho-PKR and eIF2α-P levels. Whether and how PKR and(More)
In the past two decades, a large body of evidence has established a causative role for the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, recent debate has focused on whether amyloid fibrils or soluble oligomers of Abeta are the main neurotoxic species that contribute to neurodegeneration and dementia. Considerable early evidence has(More)
Compelling preclinical and clinical evidence supports a pathophysiological connection between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes. Altered metabolism, inflammation, and insulin resistance are key pathological features of both diseases. For many years, it was generally considered that the brain was insensitive to insulin, but it is now accepted that this(More)
Dysregulated cholinergic signaling is an early hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD), usually ascribed to degeneration of cholinergic neurons induced by the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). It is now generally accepted that neuronal dysfunction and memory deficits in the early stages of AD are caused by the neuronal impact of soluble Aβ oligomers (AβOs). AβOs build up(More)
Depression is one of the most common psychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and considerable evidence indicates that major depressive disorder increases the risk of AD. 1–3 To date, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical association between depression and AD have remained elusive. Soluble oligomers of the amyloid-b peptide(More)
Brain accumulation of soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) has been implicated in synapse failure and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how oligomers of different sizes induce synapse dysfunction is a matter of controversy. Here, we report that low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) Aβ oligomers(More)