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To assess the presence of the four main viruses responsible for human acute gastroenteritis in a hydrographic network impacted by a disordered urbanization process, a 1-year study was performed involving water sample collection from streams in the hydrographic basin surrounding the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Thirteen surface water sample collection(More)
Samples of the neotropical malaria vector Anopheles darlingi from Bolivia, Brazil, and Venezuela were analyzed to test for differences in mitochondrial haplotype frequencies. With the use of molecular variance components and F-statistics, significant genetic variability of An. darlingi was found apportioned primarily among populations within regions or(More)
AIMS Torque teno virus (TTV) is a human DNA virus chronically infecting most healthy individuals worldwide and can be transmitted by faecal-oral route. The occurrence of TTV was evaluated in the streams crossing the city of Manaus (Brazilian Amazon) over a 1-year period, four times a year. METHODS AND RESULTS Fifty-two water samples were collected from 13(More)
Age-related seroprevalence studies that have been conducted in Brazil have indicated a transition from a high to a medium endemicity of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the population. However, most of these studies have focused on urban populations that experience lower incidence rates of HAV infection. In the current study, the prevalence of anti-HAV(More)
In the last few years, awareness in developed countries has increased regarding the importance of urban watercourses as essential natural resources for human well being. Macroinvertebrates have been used as bioindicators to complement physico-chemical evaluation of water quality after environmental perturbations. The city of Manaus is closely associated(More)
An anopheline survey was carried out in two simian malaria areas in the Brazilian Amazon, Balbina and Samuel, to determine the potential vectors of Plasmodium brasilianum. The most abundant and/or acrodendrophilic anophelines in the forest and the most likely vector were Anopheles mediopunctatus, An. nuneztovari, An. oswaldoi, An. triannulatus and An.(More)
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a significant waterborne human pathogen. Of the global supply of potable water, Brazil retains 13%, of which 75% resides in the Amazon Basin. Although hepatitis A morbidity has declined progressively in Brazil as a whole, it remains high in the Amazon region. We used nested and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain(More)
Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector(More)
The mosquito Aedes aegypti, the dengue virus vector, has spread throughout the tropics in historical times. While this suggests man-mediated dispersal, estimating contemporary connectivity among populations has remained elusive. Here, we use a large mtDNA dataset and a Bayesian coalescent framework to test a set of hypotheses about gene flow among American(More)
BACKGROUND Arboviral diseases are major global public health threats. Yet, our understanding of infection risk factors is, with a few exceptions, considerably limited. A crucial shortcoming is the widespread use of analytical methods generally not suited for observational data--particularly null hypothesis-testing (NHT) and step-wise regression (SWR). Using(More)