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Data from polytene chromosome studies on the Anopheles gambiae complex in Mali were reviewed. The banding pattern was successfully scored in 17,705 specimens from 76 sampling sites representing the main ecological strata of the country. Two members of the complex, namely An. arabiensis and An. gambiae, were found widespread and frequently sympatric, with(More)
The population structure of the Anopheles gambiae complex is unusual, with several sibling species often occupying a single area and, in one of these species, An. gambiae sensu stricto, as many as three "chromosomal forms" occurring together. The chromosomal forms are thought to be intermediate between populations and species, distinguishable by patterns of(More)
Mosquitoes in the Anopheles gambiae complex show rapid ecological and behavioral diversification, traits that promote malaria transmission and complicate vector control efforts. A high-density, genome-wide mosquito SNP-genotyping array allowed mapping of genomic differentiation between populations and species that exhibit varying levels of reproductive(More)
We surveyed an Anopheles gambiae population in a West African malaria transmission zone for naturally occurring genetic loci that control mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The strongest Plasmodium resistance loci cluster in a small region of chromosome 2L and each locus explains at least 89% of parasite-free(More)
The effect of filarial infections on malaria-specific immune responses was investigated in Malian villages coendemic for filariasis (Fil) and malaria. Cytokines were measured from plasma and Ag-stimulated whole blood from individuals with Wuchereria bancrofti and/or Mansonella perstans infections (Fil(+); n = 19) and those without evidence of filarial(More)
Based on highly successful demonstrations in Israel that attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) methods can decimate local populations of mosquitoes, this study determined the effectiveness of ATSB methods for malaria vector control in the semi-arid Bandiagara District of Mali, West Africa. Control and treatment sites, selected along a road that connects(More)
The principal vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, Anopheles gambiae is subdivided into two molecular forms M and S. Additionally, several chromosomal forms, characterized by the presence of various inversion polymorphisms, have been described. The molecular forms M and S each contain several chromosomal forms, including the Savanna, Mopti and Forest(More)
The M and S molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae are undergoing speciation as they adapt to heterogeneities in the environment, spreading malaria in the process. We hypothesized that their divergence despite gene flow is facilitated by reduced recombination at the centromeric (proximal) end of the X chromosome. We sequenced introns from 22 X chromosome(More)
Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Africa, can be divided into two subgroups based on genetic and ecological criteria. These two subgroups, termed the M and S molecular forms, are believed to be incipient species. Although they display differences in the ecological niches they occupy in the field, they are often sympatric and readily hybridize(More)
Successful propagation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum within a susceptible mosquito vector is a prerequisite for the transmission of malaria. A field-based genetic analysis of the major human malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has revealed natural factors that reduce the transmission of P. falciparum. Differences in P. falciparum oocyst(More)