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Astrocytes play a critical role in the regulation of brain metabolic responses to activity. One detailed mechanism proposed to describe the role of astrocytes in some of these responses has come to be known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH). Although controversial, the original concept of a coupling mechanism between neuronal(More)
The majority of individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) exhibit T-cell- and macrophage-dominated lesions (patterns I and II; as opposed to III and IV). These lesions, in turn, may be distinguished on the basis of whether or not there are immunoglobulin and complement depositions at the sites of active myelin destruction; such depositions are found(More)
BACKGROUND Cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs), which are normally associated with leukocyte trafficking, have also been shown to play an essential role in tumor metastasis to non-CNS sites. However, the role played by CAMs in brain metastasis is largely unexplored. It is known that leukocyte recruitment to the brain is very atypical and that mechanisms of(More)
Neuroinflammation has been identified as a potential therapeutic target in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but relevant biomarkers are needed. The superoxide dismutase (SOD1)(G93A) transgenic mouse model of ALS offers a unique opportunity to study and potentially manipulate presymptomatic pathology. While T₂-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(More)
Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) currently requires lesion identification by gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced or T(2)-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, these methods only identify late-stage pathology associated with blood-brain barrier breakdown. There is a growing belief that more widespread, but currently undetectable, pathology is present(More)
The potential association between microbial infection and reactivation of a multiple sclerosis (MS) lesion is an important issue that remains unresolved, primarily because of the absence of suitable animal models and imaging techniques. Here, we have evaluated this question in an empirical manner using immunohistochemistry and magnetic resonance imaging(More)
Brain metabolism of glucose and lactate was analyzed by ex vivo NMR spectroscopy in rats presenting different cerebral activities induced after the administration of pentobarbital, alpha-chloralose, or morphine. The animals were infused with a solution of either [1-(13)C]glucose plus lactate or glucose plus [3-(13)C]lactate for 20 min. Brain metabolite(More)
Carbon metabolism in the rat brain was studied in animals anesthetized with a light dose of pentobarbital and in awake animals under morphine, which were infused with either [1-13C]glucose+acetate or glucose+[2-13C]acetate for various periods of time. Brain amino-acid enrichments in tissue extracts were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)(More)
The involvement of brain lactate in neuronal metabolism was analyzed by ex vivo NMR spectroscopy with rats under the effects of pentobarbital, alphachloralose or morphine, which were infused with a solution of either [1-(13)C]glucose+lactate or glucose+[3-(13)C]lactate for 20 min. Electroencephalogram recordings indicated different brain electrical activity(More)
Metastasis to the brain is a leading cause of cancer mortality. The current diagnostic method of gadolinium-enhanced MRI is sensitive only to larger tumors, when therapeutic options are limited. Earlier detection of brain metastases is critical for improved treatment. We have developed a targeted MRI contrast agent based on microparticles of iron oxide that(More)