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The central amygdaloid nucleus projects to brainstem and hypothalamic nuclei mediating fear responses and receives convergent sensory inputs from the basolateral amygdaloid complex. However, interposed between the basolateral complex and central nucleus is a string of interconnected GABAergic cell clusters, the intercalated cell masses. Here, we analyzed(More)
A consortium of inhibitory neurons control the firing patterns of pyramidal cells, but their specific roles in the behaving animal are largely unknown. We performed simultaneous physiological recordings and optogenetic silencing of either perisomatic (parvalbumin (PV) expressing) or dendrite-targeting (somatostatin (SOM) expressing) interneurons in(More)
Classical fear conditioning is believed to result from potentiation of conditioned synaptic inputs in the basolateral amygdala. That is, the conditioned stimulus would excite more neurons in the central nucleus and, via their projections to the brainstem and hypothalamus, evoke fear responses. However, much data suggests that extinction of fear responses(More)
Although anatomical, lesion, and imaging studies of the hippocampus indicate qualitatively different information processing along its septo-temporal axis, physiological mechanisms supporting such distinction are missing. We found fundamental differences between the dorsal (dCA3) and the ventral-most parts (vCA3) of the hippocampus in both environmental(More)
Memory is believed to depend on activity-dependent changes in the strength of synapses. In part, this view is based on evidence that the efficacy of synapses can be enhanced or depressed depending on the timing of pre- and postsynaptic activity. However, when such plastic synapses are incorporated into neural network models, stability problems may develop(More)
The GABA responses of fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and regular-spiking (RS) principal cells were studied using whole cell and perforated-patch recordings in slices of the basolateral amygdala, neo-, and perirhinal cortex. In these three areas, responses to exogenous and synaptically released GABA were abolished by GABA(A) receptor antagonists in FS cells(More)
A topographical relationship exists between the hippocampus-entorhinal cortex and the neocortex. However, it is not known how these anatomical connections are utilized during information exchange and behavior. We recorded theta oscillations along the entire extent of the septotemporal axis of the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer. While the frequency of theta(More)
The intercalated (ITC) cell masses are small GABAergic cell clusters interposed between the basolateral (BL) complex and central (CE) nucleus of the amygdala. ITC cells receive excitatory afferents from the BL complex and generate feed-forward inhibition in the CE nucleus. Recently it was shown that ITC cells could gate impulse traffic between the BL(More)
High-frequency ripple oscillations, observed most prominently in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal layer, are associated with memory consolidation. The cellular and network mechanisms underlying the generation, frequency control, and spatial coherence of the rhythm are poorly understood. Using multisite optogenetic manipulations in freely behaving rodents, we(More)
Driven either by external landmarks or by internal dynamics, hippocampal neurons form sequences of cell assemblies. The coordinated firing of these active cells is organized by the prominent "theta" oscillations in the local field potential (LFP): place cells discharge at progressively earlier theta phases as the rat crosses the respective place field(More)