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Extracellular electrical stimulation (EES) of the central nervous system (CNS) has been used empirically for decades, with both fundamental and clinical goals. Currently, microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer new possibilities for CNS microstimulation. However, although focal CNS activation is of critical importance to achieve efficient stimulation strategies,(More)
Nowadays, high-density microelectrode arrays provide unprecedented possibilities to precisely activate spatially well-controlled central nervous system (CNS) areas. However, this requires optimizing stimulating devices, which in turn requires a good understanding of the effects of microstimulation on cells and tissues. In this context, modeling approaches(More)
Extracellular electrical stimulation of neural networks has been widely used empirically for decades with individual electrodes. Since recently, microtechnology provides advanced systems with high-density microelectrode arrays (MEAs). Taking the most of these devices for fundamental goals or developing neural prosthesis requires a good knowledge of the(More)
A transient finite-element model has been developed to simulate an extracellular action potential recording in a tissue slice by a planar microelectrode array. The thin-film approximation of the active neuron membrane allows the simulation within single finite-element software of the intracellular and extracellular potential fields. In comparison with a(More)
Spontaneous rhythmic activity is a ubiquitous feature of developing neural structures that has been shown to be essential for the establishment of functional CNS connectivity. However, the primordial origin of these rhythms remains unknown. Here, we describe two types of rhythmic activity in distinct parts of the developing CNS isolated ex vivo on(More)
Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system has been widely used for decades for either fundamental research purposes or clinical treatment applications. Yet, very little is known regarding the spatial extent of an electrical stimulation. If pioneering experimental studies reported that activation threshold currents (TCs) increase with the square(More)
Achieving controlled extracellular microstimulation of the central nervous system requires understanding the membrane response of a neuron to an applied electric field. The "activating function" has been proposed as an intuitive predictor of membrane polarization during stimulation, but subsequent literature raised several limitations of this estimate. In(More)
Three-dimensional electrode geometries were proposed to increase the spatial resolution in retinal prostheses aiming at restoring vision in blind patients. We report here the results from a study in which finite-element modeling was used to design and optimize three-dimensional electrode geometries. Proposed implants exhibit an array of well-like shapes(More)
Penetrating neural probes are considered for neuroprosthetic devices to restore sensory or motor functions of the CNS using electrical neural microstimulation. These multielectrode systems require optimal electrode configurations to allow precise and focused tissue activation. Combining a finite element model of the spinal cord and compartmentalized models(More)
Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) are appealing tools to probe large neural ensembles and build neural prostheses. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, several major problems become limiting factors when the size of the microelectrodes decreases. In(More)