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The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is sensitive to high temperature. Hence, exposing amphibians to high temperature may be a method to clear Bd infection. However, the effect of exposure to elevated temperature has never been tested in larval stages or temperate species.We experimentally exposed tadpoles of the toad Alytes(More)
Social insects such as ants have evolved collective rather than individual immune defence strategies against diseases and parasites at the level of their societies (colonies), known as social immunity. Ants frequently host other arthropods, so-called myrmecophiles, in their nests. Here, we tested the hypothesis that myrmecophily may partly arise from(More)
Parasitoids of herbivorous insects have frequently evolved specialized lineages exploiting hosts occurring on different plants. This study investigated whether host specialization is also observed when closely related parasitoids exploit herbivorous hosts sharing the same host plant. The question was addressed in economically relevant aphid parasitoids of(More)
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