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Highly selective heterocyclic opioid ligands with potent delta-antagonist activity have been developed on the basis of the "message-address" concept. Using this strategy, benzofuran derivatives corresponding to the non-selective opioid antagonist, naloxone, and to the mu-opioid receptor selective agonists, oxymorphone and oxycodone, were synthesized. In(More)
C-6 derivatives--hydrazones, phenylhydrazones, dinitrophenylhydrazones, oximes and semicarbazones--of morphinane-6-ones were synthesized and their binding characteristics were studied on rat brain membranes. The dihydromorphinone and oxymorphone derivatives compete for the (3H)naloxone binding sites with high affinity, while the dihydrocodeinone and(More)
Authorities of Drug Administration in the United States of America approved about 5000 drugs for use in the therapy or management of several diseases. About two hundred of these drugs have active metabolites and the knowledge of their medicinal chemistry is important both in medical practice and pharmaceutical research. This review gives a detailed(More)
The diastereoselective reaction of thevinone (2a) and nepenthone (2c) and their dihydro derivatives (2b and d) with Grignard reagents afforded new N-substituted (20S)- and (20R)-phenyl-6,14-ethenomorphinan derivatives (6a-y). The Grignard reaction of the N-substituted-N-demethyl derivatives 4a-f and 4m-r with methylmagnesium iodide resulted in the(More)
This paper presents the history of the discovery of the first alkaloids. Isolation of alkaloids is connected with the study of the active principles of medicines of plant origin, for example opium and cinchona bark. Sertürner described morphine as a plant alkali and claimed that it was capable of neutralizing free acids yielding salts. The recognition of(More)
The object of this review is to summarize the efforts which resulted in the discovery of therapeutically useful morphine-like drugs. The search for new analgesics can be divided into three stages: (a) search for analgesics with high efficacy and reduced unwanted side-effects; (b) understanding of structure-activity relationships; (c) studies on the(More)
The major pharmacological effects of heroin can be traced back to some structural properties of the morphine molecule. The analgesic effects of heroin derive from the two active metabolites, 6-O-acetylmorphine and morphine, which bind specifically to the mu-opioid receptors of the central nervous system. mu-receptors also mediate other pharmacological(More)
The present study examined the pharmacology of dihydromorphine, 6-acetyldihydromorphine and dihydroheroin (3,6-diacetyldihydromorphine). Like morphine, dihydromorphine and its acetylated derivatives all were highly selective mu-opioids in receptor binding assays. All the compounds were potent mu-selective analgesics, as shown by their sensitivity towards(More)
A concise account of the physicochemical properties of morphine and its derivatives of therapeutic interest is provided. Such properties include macroscopic and microscopic acid/base parameters, lipophilicity, solubility, permeability that all influence the fate of drugs in the body. The dependence of these parameters on pH is discussed and subsequent(More)
This account presents the chemical structure-pharmacological activity relationships of semi-synthetic morphine and synthetic morphinan and benzomorphan derivatives. Substitution of nitrogen confers the analgesic or morphine antagonist activity. Opiate receptor selectivity of these compounds is also discussed. The importance of morphine agonists, and(More)