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The transition temperature (T c) of QCD is determined by Symanzik improved gauge and stout-link improved staggered fermionic lattice simulations. We use physical masses both for the light quarks (m ud) and for the strange quark (m s). Four sets of lattice spacings (N t =4,6,8 and 10) were used to carry out a continuum extrapolation. It turned out that only(More)
The speed, bandwidth and cost characteristics of today's PC graphics cards make them an attractive target as general purpose computational platforms. High performance can be achieved also for lattice simulations but the actual implementation can be cumbersome. This paper outlines the architecture and programming model of modern graphics cards for the(More)
A critical point (E) is expected in QCD on the temperature (T) versus baryonic chemical potential (µ) plane. Using a recently proposed lattice method for µ =0 we study dynamical QCD with n f =2+1 staggered quarks of physical masses on L t = 4 lattices. Our result for the critical point is T E = 162 ± 2 MeV and µ E = 360 ± 40 MeV. For the critical(More)
We present a full result for the 2+1 flavor QCD equation of state. All the systematics are controlled, the quark masses are set to their physical values, and the continuum extrapolation is carried out. This extends our previous studies [JHEP 0601:089 (2006); 1011:077 (2010)] to even finer lattices and now includes ensembles with Nt = 6, 8, 10, 12 up to Nt =(More)
Ultrahigh energy neutrinos (UHEnu) scatter on relic neutrinos (Rnu) producing Z bosons, which can decay hadronically producing protons (Z burst). We compare the predicted proton spectrum with the observed ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) spectrum and determine the mass of the heaviest Rnu via a maximum likelihood analysis. Our prediction depends on the(More)
Unlike the electroweak sector of the standard model of particle physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is surprisingly symmetric under time reversal. As there is no obvious reason for QCD being so symmetric, this phenomenon poses a theoretical problem, often referred to as the strong CP problem. The most attractive solution for this requires the existence of(More)
We propose a scenario in which a simple power-like primary spectrum for protons with sources at cosmological distances leads to a quantitative description of all the details of the observed cosmic ray spectrum for energies from 10 17 eV to 10 21 eV. As usual, the ultrahigh energy protons with energies above E GZK ≈ 4 · 10 19 eV loose a large fraction of(More)
Transformation of epithelial cells into connective tissue cells (epithelial-mesenchymal transition, EMT) is a complex mechanism involved in tumor metastasis, and in normal embryogenesis, while type II EMT is mainly associated with inflammatory events and tissue regenaration. In this study we examined type II EMT at the ultrastructural and molecular level(More)
More than 99% of the mass of the visible universe is made up of protons and neutrons. Both particles are much heavier than their quark and gluon constituents, and the Standard Model of particle physics should explain this difference. We present a full ab initio calculation of the masses of protons, neutrons, and other light hadrons, using lattice quantum(More)