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Mammalian cells have developed diverse strategies to restrict retroviral infection. Retroviruses have therefore evolved to counteract such restriction factors, in order to colonize their hosts. Tripartite motif-containing 5 isoform-alpha (TRIM5alpha) protein from rhesus monkey (TRIM5alpharh) restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection at(More)
Dominant, constitutively expressed antiretroviral factors, including TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3 proteins, are distinguished from the conventional innate immune systems and are classified as intrinsic immunity factors. Here, we demonstrate that interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment upregulates TRIM5alpha mRNA in rhesus monkey cells, which correlates with the(More)
BACKGROUND The involvement of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in prostate cancer (PC) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is disputed as its reported prevalence ranges from 0% to 25% in PC cases and from 0% to more than 80% in CFS cases. To evaluate the risk of XMRV infection during blood transfusion in Japan, we screened three(More)
Ini1/hsnf5 gene encodes INI1 protein, a chromatin remodeling factor associated with the SWI/SNF complex. In yeast, this complex modifies chromatin condensation to coactivate various transcriptional factors. However, in human, little is known about the SWI/SNF complex and INI1. To elucidate cellular functions of ini1, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus(More)
Since HIV-1 replication is modulated at multiple stages by host cell factors, identification and characterization of those host cell factors are expected to contribute to the development of novel anti-HIV therapeutics. Previous studies showed that a C-terminally truncated cytosolic form of cleavage and polyadenylation-specific factor 6 (CPSF6-358) inhibits(More)
The xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) is a human retrovirus, recently isolated from tissues of prostate cancer patients with impaired RNase L activity. In this study, we evaluated 10 licensed anti-HIV-1 compounds for their activity against XMRV, including protease inhibitors (PI), nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors (NRTI),(More)
To determine their activities as an antiviral agent packageable within virions and suitable for continued expression in cells, we tested a single-chain antibody (scAb) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase and its three fusion proteins: fused to viral protein R (scab-Vpr), a double-cassette of the WXXF motif binding to Vpr(More)
Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can replicate in malignant cells more efficiently than in normal cells. Although the selective replication appears to be caused by defects in the interferon (IFN) system in malignant cells, the mechanisms which render these cells less responsive to IFN remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence that an activated(More)
Integrase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIVIN) consists of 288 amino acids, and its minimum DNA-binding domain (MDBD) (amino acids [aa] 220 to 270) is required for the integration reaction. We produced and characterized four murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to the MDBD of HIVIN (strain LAI). Immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays(More)
Old World monkey TRIM5alpha targets incoming human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral capsid, whereas the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like (APOBEC)3 family hypermutate/degrade viral sequences. Here, we show the potentials of simian TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3G as therapeutic sequences for AIDS gene therapy. Both rhesus and(More)