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Multiplexin (Mp) is the Drosophila orthologue of vertebrate collagens XV and XVIII. Like them, Mp is widely distributed in the basement membranes of the developing embryos, including those of neuroblasts in the central and peripheral nervous systems, visceral muscles of the gut, and contractile cardioblasts. Here we report the identification of mutant(More)
Six distinct genes have been identified as belonging to the type IV collagen gene family. They can be organized into three sets, i.e., COL4A1/COL4A2, COL4A3/COL4A4, and COL4A5/COL4A6, which are localized on three different chromosomes in humans, 13, 2, and X, respectively. Within each set the genes are aligned head-to-head and their expression is regulated(More)
The present study aims to identify alpha chains of type IV collagen in the basement membrane of the mouse ovarian follicle and examine their changes during follicular development using immunofluorescence microscopy with specific monoclonal antibodies. The basement membrane of the serous mesothelium enveloping the ovary contained all alpha chains of type IV(More)
We first isolated and characterized genomic DNA fragments that cover the 5' flanking sequences of COL4A3 and COL4A4 encoding the human basement membrane alpha3(IV) and alpha4(IV) collagen chains, respectively. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicated that the two genes are arranged head-to-head. To determine transcription start site for COL4A4 gene, we(More)
Distributions of type IV collagen alpha chains in the basement membrane (BM) of human skin and its appendages were analyzed by immunofluorescent microscopy using chain-specific monoclonal antibodies. The basement membrane beneath the epidermis contained [alpha1(IV)](2)alpha2(IV) and [alpha5(IV)](2)alpha6(IV) but no alpha3(IV)alpha4(IV)alpha5(IV); this held(More)
The skeletal muscle is classified into 2 types, slow oxidative or fast glycolytic muscle. For further characterization, we investigated the capillary architecture in slow and fast muscles. The rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were used as representatives of slow and fast muscles, respectively. To investigate capillary density, sections(More)
The biconcave disc shape of mammalian erythrocytes has been considered to be maintained only with a membrane underlain by a membranous cytoskeleton. Our improved ion-etching/scanning electron microscopy and saponin-ethanol treatment combined with immunocytochemistry in the human red blood cell revealed the three-dimensional structure of this cytoplasmic(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is linked to impaired skeletal muscle glucose uptake and storage. This study aimed to investigate the fiber type distributions and the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the capillary network in the skeletal muscles of type 2 diabetic rats. Muscle fiber type transformation, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity, capillary(More)
Vertebrate collagen types XV and XVIII are broadly distributed basement membrane components, classified into a structurally distinct subgroup called "multiplexin collagens". Mutations in mammalian multiplexins are identified in some degenerative diseases such as Knobloch syndrome 1 (KNO1) or skeletal/cardiac myopathies, however, these progressive properties(More)
Most blood vessels contain elastin that provides the vessels with the resilience and flexibility necessary to control hemodynamics. Pathophysiological hemodynamic changes affect the remodeling of elastic components, but little is known about their structural properties. The present study was designed to elucidate, in detail, the three-dimensional (3D)(More)