Ryuji Fujihara

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It has been suggested that papaverine relaxes the smooth muscle through inhibition of cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) and subsequent accumulation of cellular cyclic AMP (1-4). On the other hand, our previous study indicated that the relaxant effect of papaverine on the smooth muscle is partially due to a mechanism which is only activated in the presence(More)
Blood-borne substances can invade into the extracellular spaces of the brain via endothelial cells in sites without the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and can travel through the interstitial fluid (ISF) of the brain parenchyma adjacent to non-BBB sites. It has been shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drains directly into the blood via the arachnoid villi and(More)
New findings on flow or drainage pathways of brain interstitial fluid and cerebrospinal fluid have been made. The interstitial fluid flow has an effect on the passage of blood-borne substances in the brain parenchyma, especially in areas near blood-brain barrier (BBB)-free regions. Actually, blood-borne substances can be transferred in areas with intact BBB(More)
High fructose intake is known to be associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentration, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and high blood pressure. In addition, excess fructose intake is also thought to be a risk factor for dementia. Previous immunohistochemical studies have shown the presence of glucose transporter 5 (GLUT5), a major(More)
A large number of previous reports have focused on the transport of amyloid-β peptides through cerebral endothelial cells via the blood–brain barrier, while fewer reports have mentioned the transport through the choroid plexus epithelium via the blood–cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Concrete roles of these two pathways remain to be clarified. In this study, we(More)
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