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We examined the fail-safe responses against low-dose botulinum intoxication (botulinum neurotoxin serotype A; 0.05 ng/35 g body weight) in electrically activated in vitro phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations, since sustained ventilation is critical for the prognosis of clinical botulinum intoxication. At 0, 1, 2 and 4 wks after the peritoneal injection of(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) inhibits acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction in isolated muscles, and ouabain can partially block its effect. However, it is not clear whether ouabain attenuates BoNT/A-induced neuromuscular paralysis in vivo. In this work, we investigated the effects of ouabain on BoNT/A-induced neuromuscular(More)
The mesencephalic trigeminal sensory nucleus (Me5), which receives signals originating from oral proprioceptors, becomes active at weaning and contributes to the acquisition of active exploratory behavior [Ishii, T., Furuoka, H., Kitamura, N., Muroi, Y., and Nishimura, M. (2006) Brain Res. 1111, 153-161]. Because cognitive functions play a key role in(More)
AIMS Bovine lactoferrin (bLf) causes anchorage-independent cell growth in PC12 cells. The present study investigated the mechanisms involved in bLf-induced anchorage-independent cell growth and survival in PC12 cells. MAIN METHODS The number of adherent cells and suspended cells was estimated separately by using a methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay,(More)
Previously, we have found that post-weaning mice fed exclusively milk display low-frequency exploratory behavior compared to mice fed a food pellet diet (Ishii et al., 2005a). Because cognitive functions play a key role in animal exploration, in the present study we examined the effect of an exclusively milk formula diet on spatial learning and memory in a(More)
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