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Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Recently, a new rodent model of autism was created by exposure of rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12.5th day of gestation (VPA rats).(More)
Environmental enrichment has been repeatedly shown to affect multiple aspects of brain function, and is known to improve cognitive, behavioral, and histopathological outcome after brain injuries. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the effect of an enriched environment on behavioral aberrations observed in male rats exposed to valproic(More)
Our previous studies indicate that endogenous opioids (primarily beta-endorphin) released during stressful stimuli can interact with peripheral opioid receptors to inhibit nociception in inflamed tissue of rats. This study sought to localize opioid precursor mRNAs and opioid peptides deriving therefrom in inflamed tissue, identify opioid containing cells(More)
Exogenous opioids can produce localized opioid receptor-mediated antinociception in peripheral inflamed tissue. Previous studies show that activation of endogenous opioids by a cold water swim in rats with hind paw inflammation results in a similar local antinociceptive effect but suggest that pituitary-adrenal opioid pools are not directly involved in(More)
The effect of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 5-20 mg/kg i.p.) and NG-nitro-L-arginine (NO2Arg, 5-20 mg/kg i.p.) on morphine-induced analgesia, as well as on morphine induced tolerance and dependence was examined in male albino Swiss mice. Neither acute nor repeated (for 5 days) administration of the nitric(More)
The advance in our understanding of the biogenesis of various endogenous opioid peptides, their anatomical distribution, and the characteristics of the multiple receptors with which they interact open a new avenue for understanding the role of opioid peptide systems in chronic pain. The main groups of opioid peptides: enkephalins, dynorphins and(More)
We studied spinal analgesic and antiallodynic effects of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 administered i.t. in comparison with Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or morphine, during acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal cannulas. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (2.5, 5, 10 microg i.t.) increased the(More)
Intrathecal injection of pertussis toxin (1 microgram) in rats produced a marked decrease in the antinociceptive effect of the intrathecally administered opioid agonists [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin and bremazocine. The effect of the toxin was time-dependent, since it was more pronounced at 6 than at 2 days after its(More)
NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 400-1500 micrograms), administered intrathecally (ith.), elicits a slight but dose-related antinociception in rats, assessed by tail-flick and paw pressure tests. L-NAME (400 micrograms) and morphine (0.5 microgram) coadministered ith. elicit a profound and long-lasting antinociception, which is abolished by ith.(More)
It has been hypothesized that changes in the excitatory amino acid receptor biosynthesis may be involved in the mechanism of kindling-an animal model of epileptogenesis. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of pentylenetetrazol kindling on the expression of genes coding for NMDAR1 and GluR2 in the rat hippocampal formation.(More)