Learn More
Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication, and stereotyped, repetitive patterns of behaviors and interests. Recently, a new rodent model of autism was created by exposure of rat fetuses to valproic acid (VPA) on the 12.5th day of gestation (VPA rats).(More)
Environmental enrichment has been repeatedly shown to affect multiple aspects of brain function, and is known to improve cognitive, behavioral, and histopathological outcome after brain injuries. The purpose of the present experiments was to determine the effect of an enriched environment on behavioral aberrations observed in male rats exposed to valproic(More)
Our previous studies indicate that endogenous opioids (primarily beta-endorphin) released during stressful stimuli can interact with peripheral opioid receptors to inhibit nociception in inflamed tissue of rats. This study sought to localize opioid precursor mRNAs and opioid peptides deriving therefrom in inflamed tissue, identify opioid containing cells(More)
Exogenous opioids can produce localized opioid receptor-mediated antinociception in peripheral inflamed tissue. Previous studies show that activation of endogenous opioids by a cold water swim in rats with hind paw inflammation results in a similar local antinociceptive effect but suggest that pituitary-adrenal opioid pools are not directly involved in(More)
Intrathecal injection of pertussis toxin (1 microgram) in rats produced a marked decrease in the antinociceptive effect of the intrathecally administered opioid agonists [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]enkephalin, [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]enkephalin and bremazocine. The effect of the toxin was time-dependent, since it was more pronounced at 6 than at 2 days after its(More)
The present study investigated the effects of ethanol withdrawal after its chronic administration on endogenous opioid systems in the nucleus accumbens of rats. An in situ hybridization study showed an increase in the prodynorphin mRNA level at 24 and 48 h (by 189 and 146%, respectively) after ethanol withdrawal, whereas the proenkephalin mRNA level(More)
Dynorphin dose-dependently increased the tail flick latency of rats to radiant heat following its intrathecal injection. This effect was accompanied by an alteration in motor function that was characterized by a flaccid extension of the hindlimbs and flaccidity of the tail. Naloxone (10 but not 1 mg/kg) blocked the antinociceptive effect and motor(More)
Cortistatin (CST) is a presumptive neuropeptide that shares 11 of its 14 amino acids with somatostatin (SST). CST and SST are expressed in partially overlapping but distinct populations of cortical interneurons. In the hippocampal formation, most CST-positive cells are also positive for SST. In contrast to SST, administration of CST into the rat brain(More)
Autism is a severe behavioral disorder characterized by pervasive impairments in social interactions, deficits in verbal and non-verbal communication, and stereotyped behaviors, with a four times higher incidence in boys than in girls. The core symptoms are frequently accompanied by a spectrum of neurobehavioral and immunological derangements, including:(More)