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Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts as an antidiabetic and anti-atherogenic adipokine. Levels of adiponectin in the blood are decreased under conditions of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects(More)
A new gene, termed klotho, has been identified that is involved in the suppression of several ageing phenotypes. A defect in klotho gene expression in the mouse results in a syndrome that resembles human ageing, including a short lifespan, infertility, arteriosclerosis, skin atrophy, osteoporosis and emphysema. The gene encodes a membrane protein that(More)
Inflammation is increasingly regarded as a key process underlying metabolic diseases in obese individuals. In particular, obese adipose tissue shows features characteristic of active local inflammation. At present, however, little is known about the sequence of events that comprises the inflammatory cascade or the mechanism by which inflammation develops.(More)
The endothelin-1 (ET-1) gene was disrupted in mouse embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination to generate mice deficient in ET-1. These ET-1-/- homozygous mice die of respiratory failure at birth and have morphological abnormalities of the pharyngeal-arch-derived craniofacial tissues and organs. ET-1+/- heterozygous mice, which produce lower levels(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) on electrophysiological activities and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were investigated in coronary arterial smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). METHODS AND RESULTS The patch clamp techniques and Ca2+ measurements were applied to cultured rabbit CASMCs. The membrane potential was -46.0+/-5.0(More)
Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice show many characteristics of obesity, including excess peripheral adiposity as well as severe hepatic steatosis, at least in part, due to increased hepatic lipogenesis. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are not only ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha but are also negative regulators of hepatic(More)
We previously demonstrated that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) induce cardiomyocyte differentiation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase TAK1. Transcription factors Smads mediate transforming growth factor-beta signaling and the ATF/CREB family transcription factor ATF-2 has recently been shown to act as a common target of the Smad(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a novel vasodilating peptide involved in the regulation of circulatory homeostasis and implicated in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypothesis that AM also possesses angiogenic properties. Using laser Doppler perfusion imaging, we found that AM stimulated recovery of blood flow to the affected limb in the(More)
—Over the past decade and a half, the paradigm has emerged of cardiac hypertrophy and ensuing heart failure as fundamentally a problem in signal transduction, impinging on the altered expression or function of gene-specific transcription factors and their partners, which then execute the hypertrophic phenotype. Strikingly, RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is(More)
Human (h) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a potentially abundant source of blood cells, but how best to select iPSC clones suitable for this purpose from among the many clones that can be simultaneously established from an identical source is not clear. Using an in vitro culture system yielding a hematopoietic niche that concentrates(More)