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Recent studies have shown that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of α-synuclein (α-syn) are highly elevated in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) compared to controls. However, the diagnostic value of CSF α-syn in CJD has not been established. To confirm whether CSF α-syn is increased in CJD and is a useful marker for this disease, two independent(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Patients with acute lacunar infarction in the lenticulostriate artery (LSA) territory often show progression of motor deficits (PMD) after admission. The purpose of our study is to identify predictors for PMD using the findings of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on admission. METHODS From January 2005 to December 2008, we studied(More)
INTRODUCTION Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most dominant neurodegenerative disorder that causes dementia, and no effective treatments are available. To study its pathogenesis and develop therapeutics, animal models representing its pathologies are needed. Although many animal species develop senile plaques (SP) composed of amyloid-β (Aβ) proteins that are(More)
Amyloid β-protein (Aβ42) oligomerization is an early event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current diagnostic methods using sequence-specific antibodies against less toxic fibrillar and monomeric Aβ42 run the risk of overdiagnosis. Hence, conformation-specific antibodies against neurotoxic Aβ42 oligomers have garnered much attention for developing more(More)
The COQ2 gene encodes an essential enzyme for biogenesis, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10). Recessive mutations in this gene have recently been identified in families with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Moreover, specific heterozygous variants in the COQ2 gene have also been reported to confer susceptibility to sporadic MSA in Japanese cohorts. These findings have(More)
There is substantial biochemical, pathological, and genetic evidence that α-synuclein (A-syn) is a principal molecule in the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease (PD). We previously reported that total A-syn levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), measured with the specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed by ourselves, were decreased in(More)
A 32-year-old homosexual man was admitted because of acute headache, fever, and lymphoadenopathy. The neurological examination revealed nuchal rigidity and positive Kernig's sign. The cell count of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at the time of admission, however, was four per microliter and subsequently increased up to 31 per microliter in three days. The serum(More)
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been a candidate as a potential anti-amyloid immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease (AD) because it contains anti-amyloid β (Aβ) antibodies. Although several studies with IVIg in AD have been published, changing levels of Aβ efflux from the brain, or disaggregation of Aβ species induced by immunotherapy, have not been(More)
Importance Parkinson disease (PD) is a highly prevalent and incurable neurodegenerative disease associated with the accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein (αSyn) aggregates. An important problem in this disease is the lack of a sensitive, specific, and noninvasive biochemical diagnosis to help in clinical evaluation, monitoring of disease progression, and(More)
BACKGROUND Myasthenic symptoms can be present in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These symptoms have been considered to be caused by the degeneration of distal motor neurons and the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Recent studies suggested that antibody to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was a pathogenic agent of(More)