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We examined developmental changes of orexins/hypocretins and their receptors (OX1R and OX2R) in the rat hypothalamus from postnatal day 0 to 10 weeks, using in situ hybridization histochemistry for the prepro-orexin, OX1R and OX2R mRNAs and immunohistochemistry for orexin-A and orexin-B. The prepro-orexin mRNA was weakly detected in the lateral hypothalamic(More)
The discovery of neuropeptides has resulted in an increased understanding of novel regulatory mechanisms of certain physiological phenomena. Here we identify a novel neuropeptide of 36 amino-acid residues in rat brain as an endogenous ligand for the orphan G protein-coupled receptor FM-4/TGR-1, which was identified to date as the neuromedin U (NMU)(More)
The effects of i.c.v. administration of orexin/hypocretin on plasma ACTH, corticosterone and c-fos mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the rat were examined. Plasma ACTH levels were markedly increased at 30 min after i.c.v. administration of orexin-A. Plasma corticosterone levels were significantly increased in a dose-related manner 30 min after(More)
We have generated transgenic rats expressing an arginine vasopressin (AVP)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion gene. The expression of the eGFP gene and strong fluorescence were observed in the supraoptic nucleus (SON), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in transgenic rats. The hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal(More)
The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of adrenomedullin (AM) on plasma oxytocin (OXT), c-Fos protein (Fos), and c-fos messenger RNA (mRNA) in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the rat were investigated using RIA for OXT, immunohistochemistry for Fos, and in situ hybridization histochemistry for c-Fos mRNA.(More)
The gene expression of prepro-orexin, the precursor of orexin-A and orexin-B which are hypothalamic pepetides that are associated with feeding behavior, were examined in control (C57B1/6J) and obese (ob/ob and db/db) mice using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Orexins are identical with hypocretins that have been identified by directional tag PCR(More)
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that regulates body weight and composition. Here we show that mice lacking the gene encoding NMU (Nmu(-/-) mice) develop obesity. Nmu(-/-) mice showed increased body weight and adiposity, hyperphagia, and decreased locomotor activity and energy expenditure. Obese Nmu(-/-) mice developed hyperleptinemia,(More)
Fasting induced a reduction in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) of rats. The effect of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of leptin on the nNOS mRNA level in the PVN and SON of fasting rats was studied by in situ hybridization histochemistry. Leptin (10 microg/kg b.wt)(More)
In addition to corticosteroids and inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, tonsillectomy with steroid pulse therapy (TSP) may have a beneficial impact on the clinical course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). However, there is still much uncertainty regarding the indications for therapy, treatment protocol, and therapeutic options for IgAN. In this(More)
The mechanism of peritoneal fibrosis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is poorly elucidated. We investigated the cellular mechanism of high-glucose-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which is important in recruiting monocytes into the peritoneum and progression of peritoneal fibrosis, and examined(More)