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Enzymes are thought to use their ordered structures to facilitate catalysis. A corollary of this theory suggests that enzyme residues involved in function are not optimized for stability. We tested this hypothesis by mutating functionally important residues in the active site of T4 lysozyme. Six mutations at two catalytic residues, Glu-11 and Asp-20,(More)
Yeast flocculation is a phenomenon which is believed to result from an interaction between a lectin-like protein and a mannose chain located on the yeast cell surface. The FLO1 gene, which encodes a cell wall protein, is considered to play an important role in yeast flocculation, which is inhibited by mannose but not by glucose (mannose-specific(More)
In contrast to hen egg-white lysozyme, which retains the beta-configuration of the substrate in the product, T4 lysozyme (T4L) is an inverting glycosidase. The substitution Thr-26 --> His, however, converts T4L from an inverting to a retaining enzyme. It is shown here that the Thr-26 --> His mutant is also a transglycosidase. Indeed, the transglycosylation(More)
Interleukin-13 (IL-13) possesses two types of receptor: the heterodimer, composed of the IL-13Ralpha1 chain (IL-13Ralpha1) and the IL-4Ralpha chain (IL-4Ralpha), transducing the IL-13 signals; and the IL-13Ralpha2 chain (IL-13Ralpha2), acting as a nonsignaling "decoy" receptor. Extracellular portions of both IL-13Ralpha1 and IL-13Ralpha2 are composed of(More)
It has been shown that protein stability can be modulated from site-directed mutations that affect the entropy of protein unfolding [Matthews, B. W., Nicholson, H., & Becktel, W. J. (1987) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84, 6663-6667]. However, the effect of a specific amino acid replacement on stability highly depends on the location of the mutation site(More)
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is proposed to play a physiological role in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism; deranged circulatory levels of FGF23 cause several diseases with abnormal mineral metabolism. This paper presents a novel approach to analyze the mechanism of action of FGF23 using anti-FGF23 monoclonal antibodies that can(More)
The cytokine thrombopoietin (TPO), the ligand for the hematopoietic receptor c-Mpl, acts as a primary regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis and platelet production. We have determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain of human TPO (hTPO(163)) to a 2.5-A resolution by complexation with a neutralizing Fab fragment. The backbone structure of(More)
PURPOSE Substantial evidence indicates that supraoligomerization of the death receptors for Fas ligand and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is necessary for efficient activation of the apoptotic pathway. Bivalent IgG antibodies can induce the efficient apoptosis by mimicking the natural ligands but only after these antibodies(More)
The glycosyl-enzyme intermediate in lysozyme action has long been considered to be an oxocarbonium ion, although precedent from other glycosidases and theoretical considerations suggest it should be a covalent enzyme-substrate adduct. The mutation of threonine 26 to glutamic acid in the active site cleft of phage T4 lysozyme (T4L) produced an enzyme that(More)
A series of HIV protease inhibitor based on the allophenylnorstatine structure with various P(2)' moieties were synthesized. Among these analogues, we discovered that a small allyl group would maintain potent enzyme inhibitory activity compared to the o-methylbenzyl moiety in clinical candidate 1 (KNI-764, also known as JE-2147, AG-1776, or SM-319777).(More)