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Inter-individual variability in perception, thought and action is frequently treated as a source of 'noise' in scientific investigations of the neural mechanisms that underlie these processes, and discarded by averaging data from a group of participants. However, recent MRI studies in the human brain show that inter-individual variability in a wide range of(More)
Visual neurons show fast adaptive behavior in response to brief visual input. However, the perceptual consequences of this rapid neural adaptation are less known. Here, we show that brief exposure to a moving adaptation stimulus-ranging from tens to hundreds of milliseconds-influences the perception of a subsequently presented ambiguous motion test(More)
Noninvasive cortical stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have proved to be powerful tools for establishing causal relationships between brain regions and their functions. In the present study, we demonstrate that a new technique called transcranial alternating current(More)
Around 20% of the population exhibits moderate to severe numerical disabilities [1-3], and a further percentage loses its numerical competence during the lifespan as a result of stroke or degenerative diseases [4]. In this work, we investigated the feasibility of using noninvasive stimulation to the parietal lobe during numerical learning to selectively(More)
When visual input is inconclusive, does previous experience aid the visual system in attaining an accurate perceptual interpretation? Prolonged viewing of a visually ambiguous stimulus causes perception to alternate between conflicting interpretations. When viewed intermittently, however, ambiguous stimuli tend to evoke the same percept on many consecutive(More)
A moving object is perceived to lie beyond a static object presented at the same time at the same retinal location (flash-lag effect or FLE). Some studies report that if the moving stimulus stops moving (flash-terminated condition or FTC) the instant the flash occurs, a FLE does not occur. Other studies, using different stimuli, report that the FLE does, in(More)
How does the brain estimate time? This old question has led to many biological and psychological models of time perception (R. A. Block, 1989; P. Fraisse, 1963; J. Gibbon, 1977; D. L. I. Zakay, 1989). Because time cannot be directly measured at a given moment, it has been proposed that the brain estimates time based on the number of changes in an event (S.(More)
We often associate moving objects and changing pitch, e.g., falling stones with descending, and launching rockets with ascending pitch, even when these sounds do not happen in the real-world. The reason for this is unknown. Here we report an illusion in which auditory stimuli with no apparent spatial and motion information [1–3] alter human visual motion(More)
Human behavior depends on the ability to effectively introspect about our performance. For simple perceptual decisions, this introspective or metacognitive ability varies substantially across individuals and is correlated with the structure of focal areas in prefrontal cortex. This raises the possibility that the ability to introspect about different(More)
We effortlessly and seemingly instantaneously recognize thousands of objects, although we rarely--if ever--see the same image of an object twice. The retinal image of an object can vary by context, size, viewpoint, illumination, and location. The present study examined how the visual system abstracts object category across variations in retinal location. In(More)