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A passive light microscope system has been developed, capable of reconstructing an extended-focus 3-D cell-level image of chlorophyll fluorescence and Phi(PSII) of intact attached leaves using a limited number of focal plane images of chlorophyll fluorescence. Using this system, the relationships between the depth of the mesophyll cells in spongy tissue and(More)
Monoclonal antibodies are widely used for the treatment of various diseases, and because therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are stored in an aqueous solution or in a lyophilized state, the preparation of a stabilizing formulation that prevents their deterioration (degradation and aggregation) is crucial. Given the structural similarities of the(More)
Serious environmental degradation of aquatic ecosystems has been caused by eutrophication and by pollutants such as herbicides. Therefore, measurement of in situ algal photosynthetic activity is important for environmental monitoring. With ordinary nonimaging fluorometers, algal chlorophyll fluorescence can be measured easily, but heterogeneity within(More)
We investigated the effects of warming the basal ends of Carolina poplar (Populus × canadensis Moench.) softwood cuttings at controlled low-air-temperature on their root growth and leaf damage after planting. The warming treatment was applied to the cuttings by soaking 10 mm beyond the cut end in warmed water maintained at 30 °C in a cold chamber maintained(More)
The growth of wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) plantlets under different micro-environments inside culture vessels in photoautotrophic micropropagation (PA) and photomixotrophic micropropagation (PM) conditions were compared. After 28 days of culture, dry weight, relative growth rate, leaf area, and leaf chlorophyll contents of plantlets in PA were(More)
This study investigated the effects of atmospheric moisture on conidia development in cucurbit powdery mildew fungus (Podosphaera xanthii) through host-plant responses. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings were grown under a high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) (3.8 kPa) or a low VPD (0.4 kPa). When the cotyledons had expanded, spores of P. xanthii were(More)
The effects ofdigestate on the growth rates of Euglena gracilis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Dunaliella tertiolecta were investigated to select suitable microalgae for culturing with digestate from methane fermentation. Microalgae were cultured in an aqueous solution containing digestate at concentrations of 5%, 10%, 13%, 20%, 40%, 50%, and 100%, and(More)
We investigated the effects of morphology of host cucumber, Cucumis sativus L., leaves acclimatized to different atmospheric humidity levels on oviposition by adult females of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. Cucumber seedlings were grown at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 0.4, 1.9, or 3.0 kPa at 28°C (90%, 50%, or 20% relative(More)