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There is a growing body of evidence that striosome-matrix dopamine systems are tightly linked with motor and behavioral brain functions and disorders. In this study, we used an immunohistochemical method to show differential expression of the olfactory type G-protein alpha subunit (Galphaolf) that involves in the coupling of dopamine D1 receptor with(More)
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with proximal dominant involvement (HMSN-P) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by widespread fasciculations, proximal-predominant muscle weakness, and atrophy followed by distal sensory involvement. To date, large families affected by HMSN-P have been reported from two different regions(More)
Striatal neuropathology of Huntington's disease (HD) involves primary and progressive degeneration of the medium-sized projection neurons, with relative sparing of the local circuit interneurons. The mechanism for such a patterned cell loss in the HD striatum continues to remain unclear. Optineurin (OPTN) is one of the proteins interacting with huntingtin(More)
In this paper the authors describe two patients with recurrent hemiparesis and limb shaking that gradually progressed to hemichorea. Cerebral angiography confirmed severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis (95%) contralateral to the hemichorea. The cerebral blood flow, assessed using N-isopropyl-p-(iodine-123) iodoamphetamine single-photon emission(More)
Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable method for identifying discrete neurochemical molecules by the interaction of target antigens with validated antibodies tagged with a visible label (e.g., peroxidase). We have developed an immunostaining method that is highly sensitive in detection of neurochemical antigens. Our IHC method, which we call the PBTA(More)
Abnormal motor behaviors in Parkinson's disease (PD) result from striatal dysfunction due to an imbalance between dopamine and glutamate transmissions that are integrated by dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of 32 kDa (DARPP-32). c-Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) phosphorylates cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) at Tyr15 to increase the activity of(More)
The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1) is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of DYT3 dystonia, which leads to progressive neurodegeneration in the striatum. To determine the expression pattern of N-TAF1 transcripts, we developed a specific monoclonal antibody against the N-TAF1 protein. Here we show that in the rat brain, N-TAF1(More)
Striatal functions depend on the activity balance between the dopamine and glutamate neurotransmissions. Glutamate inputs activate cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which inhibits postsynaptic dopamine signaling by phosphorylating DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, 32 kDa) at Thr75 in the striatum. c-Abelson tyrosine kinase (c-Abl) is(More)
Neuropeptide Y is a novel bioactive substance that plays a role in the modulation of neurogenesis and neurotransmitter release, and thereby exerts a protective influence against neurodegeneration. Using a sensitive immunohistochemical method with a tyramide signal amplification protocol, we performed a post-mortem analysis to determine the striatal(More)
Because of its unique ability to exert long-lasting synaptic transmission blockade, botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) is used to treat a wide variety of disorders involving peripheral nerve terminal hyperexcitability. However, it has been a matter of debate whether this toxin has central or peripheral sites of action. We employed a rat model in which BoNT/A1(More)