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In this paper, we study trajectory planning and control in voluntary, human arm movements. When a hand is moved to a target, the central nervous system must select one specific trajectory among an infinite number of possible trajectories that lead to the target position. First, we discuss what criterion is adopted for trajectory determination. Several(More)
In order to control voluntary movements, the central nervous system (CNS) must solve the following three computational problems at different levels: the determination of a desired trajectory in the visual coordinates, the transformation of its coordinates to the body coordinates and the generation of motor command. Based on physiological knowledge and(More)
Recently, it was found that rhythmic movements (e.g. locomotion, swimmeret beating) are controlled by mutually coupled endogeneous neural oscillators (Kennedy and Davis, 1977; Pearson and Iles, 1973; Stein, 1974; Shik and Orlovsky, 1976; Grillner and Zangger, 1979). Meanwhile, it has been found out that the phase resetting experiment is useful to(More)
We proposed that the trajectory followed by human subject arms tended to minimize the time integral of the square of the rate of change of torque (Uno et al. 1987). This minimum torque-change model predicted and reproduced human multi-joint movement data quite well (Uno et al. 1989). Here, we propose a neural network model for trajectory formation based on(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the lifetime of sensory memory in human primary (SI) and secondary (SII) somatosensory cortex with a view to furthering our understanding of the roles played by these cortices in the processing of tactile information. METHODS Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were recorded following trains of 5 electrical pulses applied to the right(More)
Generally, the phase resetting experiments can be used to investigate the behaviors of the stable biological oscillators (e.g. circadian rhythms, biochemical oscillators, pacemaker neurons, bursting neurons). Winfree found that there are two types of phase transition curves (PTC) in the phase resetting experiments of biochemical oscillations. The one is the(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of interstimulus interval (ISI) on attentional enhancement of cortical activity in human somatosensory cortices. METHODS Somatosensory magnetic fields (SEFs) evoked by electrical stimulation of the right median nerve at ISIs of 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 s were recorded in two separate conditions by using whole head type(More)
OBJECTIVES We previously reported that omega-6 fat emulsion increases cytokine production in burned rats. Effects of soybean oil emulsion on surgical stress responses and lymphocyte function according to the surgical severity have not been studied in detail. We investigated the effects of soybean oil emulsion, which contains 50% omega-6 fatty acid, on(More)
Using in situ hybridization histochemistry, the localization of mRNAs for 10 isoforms of protein kinase C (PKC) in the rat brain was studied at embryonic and postnatal stages. In the embryonic brain, the gene expression was positive only for PKCɛ, μ, λ, and ζ with the former three more evident: The expression for PKCμ and λ in the ventricular germinal zone(More)