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The genus Citrus includes mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit and lime, which have high economic and nutritional value. The family Rutaceae can be divided into 7 subfamilies, including Aurantioideae. The genus Citrus belongs to the subfamily Aurantioideae. In this study, we sequenced the chloroplast matK genes of 135 accessions from 22 genera of(More)
The central few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way host a massive black hole and exhibit very violent gas motion and high temperatures in molecular gas. The origin of these properties has been a mystery for the past four decades. Wide-field imaging of the (12)CO (rotational quantum number J = 1 to 0) 2.6-millimeter spectrum has revealed huge loops of dense(More)
We carried out two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Galactic gas disk to show that the dense loop-like structures discovered by the Galactic center molecular cloud survey by NANTEN 4 m telescope can be formed by the buoyant rise of magnetic loops due to the Parker instability. At the initial state, we assumed a gravitationally stratified(More)
Lime [Citrus aurantifolia (Cristm.) Swingle] is a Citrus species that is a popular ingredient in many cuisines. Some citrus plants are known to originate in the area ranging from northeastern India to southwestern China. In the current study, we characterized and compared limes grown in Bhutan (n = 5 accessions) and Indonesia (n = 3 accessions). The limes(More)
The response of advection-dominated accretion disks to local disturbances is examined by one-dimensional numerical simulations. It is generally believed that advection-dominated disks are thermally stable. We, however, find that any disurbance added onto accretion flow at large radii does not decay so rapidly that it can move inward with roughly the(More)
High resolution observations of cluster of galaxies by Chandra have revealed the existence of an X-ray emitting comet-like galaxy C153 in the core of cluster of galaxies A2125. The galaxy C153 moving fast in the cluster core has a distinct X-ray tail on one side, obviously due to ram pressure stripping, since the galaxy C153 crossed the central region of(More)
By applying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) codes implemented to the Earth Simulator, we carried out three-dimensional simulations of formation of astrophysical jets. We adopted a Cartesian MHD code to study the stability of magnetically driven jets launched from accretion disks. Numerical results indicate that although the magnetic field lines anchored to the(More)
By implementing a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code based on the CIP-MOCCT scheme, we carried out large scale MHD simulations of the solar atmosphere covering the region from the convection zone to the corona. We found that in regions with weak magnetic fields (B~100G), horizontal magnetic loops created in the upflow regions of the convection(More)
We present a new magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation code with the aim of providing accurate numerical solutions to astrophysical phenomena where discontinuities, shock waves, and turbulence are inherently important. The code implements the HLLD approximate Riemann solver, the fifth-order-monotonicity-preserving interpolation scheme, and the hyper-bolic(More)
We analyzed the reduced-representation genome sequences of Citrus species by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-Seq) using 44 accessions, including typical and minor accessions, such as Bhutanese varieties. The results of this analysis using typical accessions were consistent with previous reports that citron, papeda, pummelo,(More)