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Introduction: CM carbonaceous chondrites have been constituent materials of hydrated planetesimals in the early solar system. They consist mainly of hydrous minerals as a result of extensive aqueous alteration. At a certain period after the aqueous alteration, many CM chondrites have been heated to higher temperature [e.g., 1], which caused evaporation loss(More)
The reflectance spectra of the most abundant meteorites, ordinary chondrites, are different from those of the abundant S-type (mnemonic for siliceous) asteroids. This discrepancy has been thought to be due to space weathering, which is an alteration of the surfaces of airless bodies exposed to the space environment. Here we report evidence of space(More)
Bartter's syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder characterised by deficient renal reabsorption of sodium and chloride, and hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis with hyper-reninaemia and hyperaldosteronaemia. Mutations in several ion transporters and channels have been associated with the pathogenesis of Bartter's syndrome. We describe two hypocalcaemic patients(More)
Patients with poorly controlled noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) are shown to have higher bone mass. However, the influence of changes in glycemic control on bone turnover is not known. To clarify whether metabolic improvement of poorly controlled NIDDM affects bone turnover, markers for glucose, mineral, and bone metabolism were assessed(More)
Osteoblasts and adipocytes are derived from common bone marrow stromal cells that play crucial roles in the generation of osteoclasts. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) induces adipogenic differentiation of stromal cells; however, whether this would affect osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation is unknown. Thus, we(More)
Expansion of the progenitor pool of oligodendrocytes (OLs) is a critical process for obtaining appropriate amounts of mature myelin-forming OLs in the developing and regenerating central nervous system. In vitro, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2), together with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), is required to expand oligodendrocyte progenitor cells(More)
UNLABELLED Monthly minodronate at 30 or 50 mg had similar efficacy as 1 mg daily in terms of change in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers with similar safety profiles. This new regimen provides patients with a new option for taking minodronate. INTRODUCTION Minodronate at a daily oral dose of 1 mg has been proven to have antivertebral(More)
Skull metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is rare. The majority of skull metastases of thyroid carcinoma are of the follicular subtype, rather than thyroid papillary carcinoma. In this report, a 55-year-old woman with skull metastasis from thyroid papillary carcinoma is presented. The metastatic lesion of the skull was hypervascular and osteolytic, and the(More)
A single grain (~3 micrograms) returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft was analyzed by neutron activation analysis. This grain is mainly composed of olivine with minor amounts of plagioclase, troilite, and metal. Our results establish that the Itokawa sample has similar chemical characteristics (iron/scandium and nickel/cobalt ratios) to chondrites, confirming(More)
A 58-year-old woman and a 71-year-old woman presented with extremely rare skull base metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC). Surgical removal and external radiotherapy were performed followed by iodine-131 ((131)I) brachytherapy and thyroid hormone administration. The metastatic tumors in the skull base were well controlled. Treatment for skull(More)