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Laughter matters! From an analysis of a very large corpus of naturally-occurring conversational speech we have confirmed that approximately one in ten utterances contains laughter. From among these laughing utterances, we were able to distinguish four types of laughter according to what each revealed about the speaker's affective state, and we were able to(More)
We investigated the ontogenic development of macrophage functions which are important in the expression of host defense against infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Macrophage functions, including accumulation in response to local stimuli, chemotaxis in vitro, and intracellular killing, as well as number of macrophages, were examined by using mice 1, 2, 3,(More)
After axotomy of embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro, some of the axotomized axons lose their identity, and new axons arise and grow. This axotomy-induced axonogenesis requires importin, suggesting that some injury-induced signals are transported via axons to elicit axonogenesis after axotomy. In this study, we show that STAT3 is activated in response to(More)
When Xenopus laevis oocytes were microinjected with poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from adult rat brains or electric organs of Electrophorus electricus, the oocytes developed functional sodium channels. Upon application of veratrine, the microinjected oocytes exhibited transient depolarization, resulting in spontaneous repetitive spikes in some occasions, and(More)
To determine whether the presence of bacterial flora contributes to the ontogenic development of macrophage function, the ability of macrophages to release superoxide anion (O2-) in response to stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate was compared in conventional and germfree mice of various ages after birth. One-week-old conventional mice showed a very(More)
We characterize the previously unrecognized phenomenon of axotomy-induced axonogenesis in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism. New neurites arose from cell bodies after axotomy and grew. These neurites were Tau-1-positive, and the injured axons showed negative immunoreactivity for Tau-1. Axonogenesis was delayed(More)
Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Most patients with AxD have a de novo dominant missense mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. Patients with late-onset AxD exhibit a more variable onset and severity than patients with early-onset AxD, suggesting the existence of factors that modify the clinical phenotype(More)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy. The majority of CMT is demyelinating type (demyelinating CMT) caused by Schwann cell involvement. Although a large number of genes responsible for demyelinating CMT have been found, the common molecular target of the pathophysiology caused by these different genes in demyelinating(More)
Drugs under development can cause unpredicted toxicity in humans due to differential drug responsiveness between humans and other disease models, resulting in clinical trial failures. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to represent a useful tool for toxicity testing. However, among many assays, appropriate cellular assays for(More)
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