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Cell recognition proteins of the contactin-associated protein (Caspr) family demarcate distinct domains along myelinated axons. Caspr is present at the paranodal junction formed between the axon and myelinating glial cells, whereas Caspr2 is localized and associates with K(+) channels at the adjacent juxtaparanodal region. Here we investigated the(More)
Laughter matters! From an analysis of a very large corpus of naturally-occurring conversational speech we have confirmed that approximately one in ten utterances contains laughter. From among these laughing utterances, we were able to distinguish four types of laughter according to what each revealed about the speaker’s affective state, and we were able to(More)
After axotomy of embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro, some of the axotomized axons lose their identity, and new axons arise and grow. This axotomy-induced axonogenesis requires importin, suggesting that some injury-induced signals are transported via axons to elicit axonogenesis after axotomy. In this study, we show that STAT3 is activated in response to(More)
The cell types expressing cot proto-oncogene mRNA were identified by in situ hybridization (ISH) histochemistry. Among a variety of adult mouse tissues examined, four types of glandular cells expressing cot gene were identified: (1) granular duct cells in the submandibular and sublingual glands; (2) serous cells in the parotid gland; (3) peptic (chief)(More)
We characterize the previously unrecognized phenomenon of axotomy-induced axonogenesis in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism. New neurites arose from cell bodies after axotomy and grew. These neurites were Tau-1-positive, and the injured axons showed negative immunoreactivity for Tau-1. Axonogenesis was delayed(More)
We cloned and analyzed the murine cot proto-oncogene and examined its tissue-specific expression in fetal, newborn and adult mice. Genomic cot DNA consists of eight exons, spanning more than 25 kb, and all intron-exon borders are well conserved as compared to the human homolog. Analysis of the full-length cot cDNA revealed that it contained an open reading(More)
Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder. Most patients with AxD have a de novo dominant missense mutation in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene. Patients with late-onset AxD exhibit a more variable onset and severity than patients with early-onset AxD, suggesting the existence of factors that modify the clinical phenotype(More)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited neuropathy. The majority of CMT is demyelinating type (demyelinating CMT) caused by Schwann cell involvement. Although a large number of genes responsible for demyelinating CMT have been found, the common molecular target of the pathophysiology caused by these different genes in demyelinating(More)
Drugs under development can cause unpredicted toxicity in humans due to differential drug responsiveness between humans and other disease models, resulting in clinical trial failures. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to represent a useful tool for toxicity testing. However, among many assays, appropriate cellular assays for(More)
The involvement of inoculated virus antigens in the induction of target susceptibility to cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated lysis was investigated using heat-inactivated influenza virus, PR8 strain, and various inhibitors in comparison to the cases for live or ultraviolet (u.v.)-irradiated influenza and Sendai viruses. Induction of target susceptibility(More)
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