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Cell recognition proteins of the contactin-associated protein (Caspr) family demarcate distinct domains along myelinated axons. Caspr is present at the paranodal junction formed between the axon and myelinating glial cells, whereas Caspr2 is localized and associates with K(+) channels at the adjacent juxtaparanodal region. Here we investigated the(More)
Laughter matters! From an analysis of a very large corpus of naturally-occurring conversational speech we have confirmed that approximately one in ten utterances contains laughter. From among these laughing utterances, we were able to distinguish four types of laughter according to what each revealed about the speaker's affective state, and we were able to(More)
After axotomy of embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro, some of the axotomized axons lose their identity, and new axons arise and grow. This axotomy-induced axonogenesis requires importin, suggesting that some injury-induced signals are transported via axons to elicit axonogenesis after axotomy. In this study, we show that STAT3 is activated in response to(More)
We characterize the previously unrecognized phenomenon of axotomy-induced axonogenesis in rat embryonic hippocampal neurons in vitro and elucidate the underlying mechanism. New neurites arose from cell bodies after axotomy and grew. These neurites were Tau-1-positive, and the injured axons showed negative immunoreactivity for Tau-1. Axonogenesis was delayed(More)
When Xenopus laevis oocytes were microinjected with poly(A)+ mRNA isolated from adult rat brains or electric organs of Electrophorus electricus, the oocytes developed functional sodium channels. Upon application of veratrine, the microinjected oocytes exhibited transient depolarization, resulting in spontaneous repetitive spikes in some occasions, and(More)
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