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Arabidopsis RD21 is a cysteine protease of the papain family. Unlike other members of the papain family, RD21 has a C-terminal extension sequence composed of two domains, a 2-kD proline-rich domain and a 10-kD domain homologous to animal epithelin/granulin family proteins. The RD21 protein was accumulated as 38- and 33-kD proteins in Arabidopsis leaves. An(More)
Microcystins and nodularin, isolated from toxic blue-green algae, are hepatotoxic monocyclic polypeptides. Both microcystins and nodularin inhibited in vitro protein phosphatase activity present in a cytosolic fraction of mouse liver, bound to the okadaic acid receptors, protein phosphatases 1 and 2A, and thus resulted in the increase of phosphoproteins;(More)
Plants degrade cellular materials during senescence and under various stresses. We report that the precursors of two stress-inducible cysteine proteinases, RD21 and a vacuolar processing enzyme (VPE), are specifically accumulated in approximately 0.5 microm diameter x approximately 5 microm long bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana. Such bodies have previously(More)
Putative vacuolar sorting receptors that bind to the vacuolar targeting signals have been found in various plants; pumpkin PV72, pea BP-80 and Arabidopsis AtELP. PV72 is a seed-specific receptor that is predicted to sort seed storage proteins to protein storage vacuoles. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance showed that the lumenal domain of PV72 bound to(More)
The yellow variegated2 (var2) is one of the best-characterized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants showing leaf variegation. Leaf variegation of var2 results from the loss of an ATP-dependent metalloprotease, FtsH2, which is a major component of the FtsH heterocomplex in thylakoid membranes. While the functional role of FtsH2 in protein quality(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is composed of tubules, sheets, and three-way junctions, resulting in a highly conserved polygonal network in all eukaryotes. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the organization of these structures are obscure. To identify novel factors responsible for ER morphology, we employed a forward genetic approach using a(More)
The ER body is a novel compartment that is derived from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in Arabidopsis. In contrast to whole seedlings which have a wide distribution of the ER bodies, rosette leaves have no ER bodies. Recently, we reported that wound stress induces the formation of many ER bodies in rosette leaves, suggesting that the ER body plays a role in the(More)
Starch is a biologically and commercially important polymer of glucose and is synthesized to form starch grains (SGs) inside amyloplasts. Cereal endosperm accumulates starch to levels that are more than 90% of the total weight, and most of the intracellular space is occupied by SGs. The size of SGs differs depending on the plant species and is one of the(More)
1 INTRODUCTION The E~ project [38] was launched in 1996 at Kern University m order to model and simulate various cellular processes with the ultimate goal of simulating the cell as a whole. The first version of the E-C~L simulation system, which is a generic software package for cell modeling, was completed m 1997. E-CI~ simulates the behavior of model cell(More)
Starch synthase (SS) IIIa has the second highest activity of the total soluble SS activity in developing rice endosperm. Branching enzyme (BE) IIb is the major BE isozyme, and is strongly expressed in developing rice endosperm. A mutant (ss3a/be2b) was generated from wild-type japonica rice which lacks SSIIa activity. The seed weight of ss3a/be2b was 74-94%(More)