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Brain distribution of the opiate receptor antagonist, cyclofoxy (CF), was evaluated at equilibrium in rats. A combination of i.v. injection and constant i.v. infusion was used to administer CF over a wide dose range (2.4-450 nmol/rat). Kinetic simulations and experimental results showed that this administration schedule accomplishes "true" tissue-blood(More)
A conditioned withdrawal response was characterized in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Using light as the conditioned stimulus and high-speed orbital rotation as the unconditioned stimulus, experimental animals were trained with 30 paired presentations of light and orbital rotation per day for 3 days. After training, all experimental animals responded to(More)
We demonstrated a sensory preconditioning in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. An appetitive sucrose solution (a conditioned stimulus: CS1) and weak vibration (another conditioned stimulus: CS2) were first associated, and then the CS2 and an aversive KCl solution (an unconditioned stimulus: UCS) were done. To build the conditioning, two different training(More)
Associative learning dependent on visual and vestibular sensory neurons and the underlying cellular mechanisms have been well characterized in Hermissenda but not yet in Lymnaea. Three days of conditioning with paired presentations of a light flash (conditional stimulus: CS) and orbital rotation (unconditional stimulus: UCS) in intact Lymnaea stagnalis(More)
Serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-IR) neurons identified as cerebropleural ganglion triplets (CPTs) in Hermissenda may be homologues of 5-HT-IR neurons identified in other opisthobranch molluscs. In studies of isolated nervous systems and semi-intact preparations we used a combination of immunohistochemical techniques and fluorescent labeling with Lucifer(More)
Short- and long-term synaptic plasticity are considered to be cellular substrates of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity especially with respect to morphology, however, are not known. In vitro conditioning in molluscan preparations is a well established form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Five paired presentations of light(More)
In the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, serotonergic transmission plays an important role in controlling feeding behavior. Recent electrophysiological studies have claimed that only metabotropic serotonin (5-HT(2)) receptors, and not ionotropic (5-HT(3)) receptors, are used in synapses between serotonergic neurons (the cerebral(More)
A new form of taste aversion conditioning was established in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. An associative memory, lasting 24h, was produced in the pond snail with 20 pairings of 100 mM sucrose as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and mechanical stimulation to the head as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Animals exposed to reverse pairings of the CS and UCS(More)
In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training performed on the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, a stimulus (the conditional stimulus, CS; e.g., sucrose) that elicits a feeding response is paired with an aversive stimulus (the unconditional stimulus, US) that elicits the whole-body withdrawal response and inhibits feeding. After CTA training and memory(More)
This paper describes a method for person re-identification across multiple non-overlapping cameras using both gait and color features. Because a single color feature is insufficient to distinguish persons with similar color clothes, a spatio-temporal histogram of oriented gradients is employed as a gradient-based shape and motion gait feature to(More)