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A conditioned withdrawal response was characterized in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Using light as the conditioned stimulus and high-speed orbital rotation as the unconditioned stimulus, experimental animals were trained with 30 paired presentations of light and orbital rotation per day for 3 days. After training, all experimental animals responded to(More)
Serotonin immunoreactive (5-HT-IR) neurons identified as cerebropleural ganglion triplets (CPTs) in Hermissenda may be homologues of 5-HT-IR neurons identified in other opisthobranch molluscs. In studies of isolated nervous systems and semi-intact preparations we used a combination of immunohistochemical techniques and fluorescent labeling with Lucifer(More)
We demonstrated a sensory preconditioning in the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis. An appetitive sucrose solution (a conditioned stimulus: CS1) and weak vibration (another conditioned stimulus: CS2) were first associated, and then the CS2 and an aversive KCl solution (an unconditioned stimulus: UCS) were done. To build the conditioning, two different training(More)
Cyclosporin A (CyA) tissue distribution kinetics was extensively studied after single 1.2-, 6-, and 30-mg/kg CyA doses (via 2-min i.v. infusion) to rats. Drug concentrations in blood and various tissues were measured using a specific radioimmunoassay. Based on total blood concentration data alone, CyA systemic pharmacokinetics appeared essentially linear.(More)
Associative learning dependent on visual and vestibular sensory neurons and the underlying cellular mechanisms have been well characterized in Hermissenda but not yet in Lymnaea. Three days of conditioning with paired presentations of a light flash (conditional stimulus: CS) and orbital rotation (unconditional stimulus: UCS) in intact Lymnaea stagnalis(More)
This paper describes a method for person re-identification across multiple non-overlapping cameras using both gait and color features. Because a single color feature is insufficient to distinguish persons with similar color clothes, a spatio-temporal histogram of oriented gradients is employed as a gradient-based shape and motion gait feature to(More)
Short- and long-term synaptic plasticity are considered to be cellular substrates of learning and memory. The mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity especially with respect to morphology, however, are not known. In vitro conditioning in molluscan preparations is a well established form of short-term synaptic plasticity. Five paired presentations of light(More)
A new form of taste aversion conditioning was established in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. An associative memory, lasting 24h, was produced in the pond snail with 20 pairings of 100 mM sucrose as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and mechanical stimulation to the head as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Animals exposed to reverse pairings of the CS and UCS(More)
We examined whether Ca(2+) induced Ca(2+) release through ryanodine receptors is involved in the conditioning of specific morphologic changes at the axon terminals of type B photoreceptors in the isolated circumesophageal ganglion of Hermissenda. Calcium chelation by bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid prevented the conformational change(More)
Dynamics of changes in physiology and morphology were studied in Hermissenda photoreceptors after in vitro conditioning with paired light and vibration. An increase in input resistance of the type B photoreceptor was observed following 5 paired presentations of light and vibration. It peaked at 10 min after in vitro conditioning, then decreased to a level(More)