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Plant pathogens alter the course of plant developmental processes, resulting in abnormal morphology in infected host plants. Phytoplasmas are unique plant-pathogenic bacteria that transform plant floral organs into leaf-like structures and cause the emergence of secondary flowers. These distinctive symptoms have attracted considerable interest for many(More)
Systemic necrosis is one of the most severe symptoms caused by plant RNA viruses. Recently, systemic necrosis has been suggested to have similar features to a defense response referred to as the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death. In virus-infected plant cells, host intracellular membrane structures are changed dramatically for(More)
Cinchona alkaloids are effective additives for enantioselective O-H insertion of alpha-phenyldiazoacetate and water by rhodium(II) complexes. Addition of silica gel promotes O-H insertion in the reaction rate and the reaction proceeds smoothly at less than the freezing point of water, e.g., -10 degrees C, and provided mandelate in up to 50% ee. The results(More)
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