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In face-to-face conversations, speakers are continuously checking whether the listener is engaged in the conversation and change the conversational strategy if the listener is not fully engaged in the conversation. With the goal of building a conversational agent that can adaptively control conversations with the user, this study analyzes the user's gaze(More)
A novel biomass-energy process for the production of methane from sewage sludge using a subcritical water (sub-CW) hydrolysis reaction as pretreatment is proposed. The main substances of sewage sludge hydrolyzed by sub-CW at 513 K for 10 min were acetic acid, formic acid, pyroglutamic acid, alanine, and glycine. Fermentation experiments were conducted in an(More)
In multi-party meetings, participants need to predict the end of the speaker's utterance and who will start speaking next, and to consider a strategy for good timing to speak next. Gaze behavior plays an important role for smooth turn-taking. This paper proposes a mathematical prediction model that features three processing steps to predict (I) whether(More)
In face-to-face conversations, speakers are continuously checking whether the listener is engaged in the conversation by monitoring the partner’s eye-gaze behaviors. The goal of this study is to build an intelligent conversational agent that can recognize user’s engagement from multiple types of eye-gaze information. In our previous work, we developed a(More)
Techniques that use nonverbal behaviors to predict turn-changing situations—such as, in multiparty meetings, who the next speaker will be and when the next utterance will occur—have been receiving a lot of attention in recent research. To build a model for predicting these behaviors we conducted a research study to determine whether respiration(More)
In face-to-face conversations, speakers are continuously checking whether the listener is engaged in the conversation by monitoring the partner's eye-gaze behaviors. In this study, focusing on eye-gaze as information of estimating user's conversational engagement, first, we conduct a Wizard-of-Oz experiment to collect the user's gaze behaviors as well as(More)
This study investigates the influence of surface treatment of contaminated lithium disilicate and leucite glass ceramic restorations on the bonding efficacy of universal adhesives. Lithium disilicate and leucite glass ceramics were contaminated with saliva, and then cleaned using distilled water (SC), or 37% phosphoric acid (TE), or hydrofluoric acid (CE).(More)
We compared the surface free-energies and dentin bond strengths of single-step self-etch adhesives with and without an oxygen-inhibited layer. The labial dentin surfaces of bovine mandibular incisors were wet ground with #600-grit silicon carbide paper. The adhesives were applied to the ground dentin, light-irradiated, and the oxygen-inhibited layer was(More)
Influences of contamination and cleaning methods on the bonding of resin cement to zirconia ceramics were examined. Airborne particle-abraded zirconia (IPS e.max ZirCAD) specimens were contaminated with saliva and cleaned with tap water (SC) or by application of 37% phosphoric acid (PA), Ivoclean (IC), or additional airborne particle abrasion (AB).(More)