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Neurons in the latero-capsular part of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a region now called the "nociceptive amygdala", receive predominantly nociceptive information from the dorsal horn through afferent pathways relayed at the nucleus parabrachialis (PB). Excitatory synaptic transmission between the PB afferents and these neurons is reported to(More)
Sensory systems for detecting tactile stimuli have evolved from touch-sensing nerves in invertebrates to complicated tactile end organs in mammals. Merkel discs are tactile end organs consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent nerve endings and are localized in fingertips, whisker hair follicles, and other touch-sensitive spots. Merkel discs transduce touch(More)
Protobothrops (formerly Trimeresurus) elegans, a Crotalinae snake, inhabits Ishigaki and Iriomote islands of the Sakishima Islands of Japan which are located between Okinawa island of Japan and Taiwan. Two phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) isozymes were purified to homogeneity from P. elegans venom and sequenced. This led to a discovery of novel PLA(2) isozymes(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperexcitability of nociceptive afferent fibers is an underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain and ion channels involved in neuronal excitability are potentially therapeutic targets. KCNQ channels, a subfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels mediating M-currents, play a key role in neuronal excitability. It is unknown whether KCNQ channels are(More)
Rrs1 has an essential role in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We isolated a temperature-sensitive kcs1 mutant that suppresses the cold sensitivity of rrs1-1. The kcs1 allele, resulting in truncation of inositol 6 phosphate kinase domain, and kcs1 disruption suppress a defect of rrs1-1 in 60S ribosomal subunit assembly. These(More)
Although a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) has been widely adopted for the sequence control of industrial machinery, its performance does not always satisfy the recent requirements in large and highly responsive systems. With the state-of-the-art FPGA technology, it is possible to implement a control program with hard-wired logic for higher response and(More)
This study proposes a semi-fragile watermark design method for detecting illegally copied 2D barcodes. The proposed method uses real mobile phones for fitness calculation rather than simulation. In addition, we formulate this task as a multi-objective optimization problem to design a commonly usable watermark on various mobile phones.
This paper proposes an algorithm named Neighborhood-and Crowding-based Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (NCjDE) for multi-optima problems. This paper also proposes its application for semi-fragile watermarking of colored two-dimensional (2D) barcodes with adequate semi-fragileness for copy detection, which are displayed on mobile phone screen and used(More)
The Merkel disc is a main type of tactile end organ consisting of Merkel cells and Aβ-afferent endings that responds to tactile stimulation with slowly adapting type 1 (SA1) afferent impulses. Our recent study has shown that Merkel discs in whisker hair follicles are serotonergic synapses using endogenous serotonin to transmit tactile signals from Merkel(More)
Mammals use tactile end-organs to perform sensory tasks such as environmental exploration, social interaction, and tactile discrimination. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying tactile transduction in tactile end-organs remain poorly understood. The patch-clamp recording technique may be the most valuable approach for detecting and studying(More)